LEARNING THEORIES
Cognitive vs. Behavioral
By: Margarita Casanova
JEAN WILLIAM FRITZ
PIAGET
JEAN WILLIAM FRITZ
PIAGET
COGNITIVE THEORIST (1896-1980)
 In 1918, Piaget received a doctorate from the University of Neuchatel
 Piaget did post-doctoral training in Zurich (1918–1919), and in Paris (1919–1921)
 In 1922, he moved to Geneva and he became the theorist we recognize today
 Piaget worked for Edouard Claparede as director of research at the Rousseau Institute
P I A G E T ’ S C O N T R I BU T I O N S
 1920’s - Piaget investigated the hidden side of children’s minds and proposed that children
moved from a position of egocentrism to sociocentrism.
 1934’s - He was the Director of the International Bureau of Education, he declared "only
education is capable of saving our societies from possible collapse, whether violent, or gradual.”
 1955’s - Piaget created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva.
 1960’s - American psychology incorporated the "Third Piaget“ logical model of intellectual
development ideas.
 2001’s – He process the reflecting abstraction through repeated actions, perhaps with variations
or in different contexts or on different kinds of objects, the child is able to differentiate and integrate
its elements and effects.
PIAGET’S OF THE
COGNITIVE DOMAIN
 Psychometric tests recognized by Piaget found it had limitations, as children
were not able to provide the researcher with their deepest thoughts and inner
intellect.
 Piaget’s observations theories of infant development were based on his own
three children.
 Piaget was able to find significant differences in the way adults and children
reason;
• He was still unable to find the path of logic reasoning and the unspoken
thoughts of children
• It did not allow him to study a child’s intellectual development over time.
EDWARD CHACE TOLMAN
EDWARD CHACE TOLMAN
B E H AV I O R A L T H E O R I S T ( 1 8 8 6 – 1 9 5 9 )
 Tolman was an American psychologist who was famous for his studies
on behavioral psychology.
 Tolman was born in West Newton, Massachusetts and had a brother
of CalTech physicist Richard Chace Tolman.
 In 1915, Edward C. Tolman studied at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology where he received his Ph.D. from Harvard University.
 Tolman always mentioned that he was strongly influenced by the
Gestalt psychologists, Kurt Lewin and Kurt Koffka.
TO L M A N ’ S C O N T R I BU T I O N S
 Tolman paper with Ritchie and Kalish in 1946 was probably the most influential
as best known for his studies of learning in rats by using mazes, plus published
many experimental articles.
 In 1932, his book indicated that he wanted to use behavioral methods to gain an
understanding of the mental processes of humans and other kinds of animals.
 Tolman “Drives Toward War” publication book had much concerned on
psychology that he applied his technical theories to try to solve human problems.
TO L M A N ’ S P E R F O R M A N C E
T H E O RY
 Tolman demonstrate that animals could learn facts about the world. The animals
could subsequently use in a flexible manner, rather than simply learning automatic
responses which can be triggered off by environmental situations.
 He mentions of three different variables that influence behavior are:
• independent
• intervening
• dependent variables
 The experimenter can manipulate the independent variables;
• These independent variables in turn influence the intervening variables
• Independent variables are also factors of the subject that the
experimenter specifically chooses for.
TO L M A N ’ S TY P E S O F
P RO P O S E D L E A R N I N G
In 1932 Tolman proposed five types of learning:
•
•
•
•
•
approach learning,
escape learning,
avoidance learning,
choice-point learning
latent learning
Tolman proposed that all forms of learning depend upon means-end
readiness, goal-oriented behavior, mediated by expectations, perceptions,
representations, and other internal or environmental variables.
S UMMARY :
APPLICATION OF LEARNING THEORIES
ON ADULT EDUCATION
 Piaget- Piaget was able to find significant differences in the way adults and children
reason by a child progresses thinking; they learn thinking skills such as words, symbols
and images to represent the world. These stages called sensorimotor and preoperational
adults must grasp these concepts in childhood because if they do not an adult may
struggle to fit in or function as adult.
 Tolman- A child perceives "yes” if he or she feels loved, secure, and confident, and,
behaviorally. The child is more likely to explore his or her environment and play with
others sociably. A child perceives "no" the child experiences anxiety and behaviorally. The
child is less likely to exhibit attachment behaviors ranging from simple visual searching on
the low extreme to active following and vocal signaling.
WORKS CITED
 n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/sign-theory.html
 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_C._Tolman
 n.d.). Retrieved from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_cognitive_development
 (n.d.). Retrieved from http://users.accesscomm.ca/vendra/EDU 533/Behaviorism ,
Cognitive Psychology and Constructivism.htm