13
SECTION
Makes the body more efficient
 Makes the body better able to perform certain
tasks
 Can make the human machine more effective
 We can run faster, jump higher, and throw
further
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The four building blocks of exercise prescription
F = Frequency
 I = Intensity
 T= Type
 T= Time
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the amount of time per week spent training
 general guideline is 3-5 times/week
 determination of frequency depends greatly on
the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations,
and type of training
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how hard the individual must work
 taken as a percentage of the individual’s maximal
aerobic and anaerobic power
 general guideline is 50%-100% of athlete’s maximal
intensity
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amount of time spent in a single training session
 general guideline is 3-6 times/week
 depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic
aspirations, and type of training
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either aerobic or anaerobic training
prescriptions, or a combination of both
 depends on the athlete’s level of fitness, athletic
aspirations, and sport or activity for which he or
she is training
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The three energy systems available…
 Anaerobic alactic
 Anaerobic lactic
 Aerobic
 Each system has certain limitations and strengths
 Training can be incorporated to either enhance one
or all energy systems, depending on the athlete’s
needs
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High speed explosive movements, generally 85%100% of maximal intensity
Long rest periods between sets
High intensity and volume training
Training prescription will depend greatly on the
athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations, and
type of sport
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High speed explosive movements, generally 75%85% of maximal intensity
Long rest periods between sets
Moderately high intensity and volume training
Training prescription will depend greatly on the
athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations,
and type of sport
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Repetitive movements, generally 50%-75% of
maximal intensity
Short rest periods between sets
Moderately low intensity and volume training
Training prescription will depend greatly on the
athlete’s level of fitness, athletic aspirations,
and type of sport
The
 The
 The
 The
 The
 The
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Principle
Principle
Principle
Principle
Principle
Principle
of Overload
of Progression
of Specificity (or S.A.I.D.)
of Individual Differences
of Reversibility
of Diminishing Returns
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To get stronger, the body must perform tasks that
are more challenging than those to which it is
accustomed
Over time the body will adapt
New demands must be incorporated
Overload can include all aspects of training, i.e.,
physiological, emotional, mental, and psychological
In order to constantly improve, an athlete must
progressively increase the overload over time
 The athlete must be aware that loads and demands
on the body must occur over time to increase
performance and decrease injury
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In order for specific outcomes to occur, training
must be specific to those outcomes
Example: if you need to improve your vertical
jump, your exercise prescription should include
explosive power such as exercises that target
the legs
Specific muscle adaptations will occur if
training is specific
Training must reflect athlete’s “game situation
needs”

Every athlete has a different physical and
psychological makeup
 Pre-training fitness levels
 Requirements within their sport
 Age and gender
 Ability to recover from workouts
 Ability to recover from injury
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“Use it or lose it”
Detraining
Loss of one’s edge
Loss in intensity
Atrophy
Reasons include: injury, lack of motivation,
overtraining, and burnout
A person’s training gains will reflect that
person’s prior level of training
 Performance plateau
 Must change exercise prescription
 Ethical vs. unethical training methods
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Periodization
 Concurrent training
 Interval training
 Fartlek training
 Resistance training
 Plyometric training
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Breakdown of year-long training
 Three major seasons: off-season, pre-season, and
in-season
 Macrocycle – the year or years
 Mesocycle – months or weeks
 Microcycle – day(s) or week
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Training all energy systems at the same time
Different types of training simultaneously
Great for general fitness
Performed during the off-season for certain
athletes
Ideal for keeping variety in one’s exercise
program
Can benefit both anaerobic and aerobic systems
 Alternating periods of intensity within a given
workout
 Great for lactic acid training threshold
 Manipulates length of intense period, its
intensity, length of rest, and number of
repetitions
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Means “speed play”
 Basically the same as interval, without rigid
numerical control
 Athletes change variables according to terrain
or how they feel
 Speed up or slow down when you want
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Lifting weights is the most common form
 Weight provides resistance to muscles
 Broken down into number of: sets, repetitions,
rest, tempo (speed of repetition), loads, and
volume
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“Stretch-shortening exercises”
Examples include: bounding, hopping,
jumping, box jumps, box drills
Used to develop strength and power
Caution: should not be used until athletes
have a solid aerobic and anaerobic base.
Children should also avoid repeated long,
high intense plyometric routines.
Rest and recovery
 Avoiding injury
 Stretching
 Warm-up and cool-down periods
 Sleep
 Interest level
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Training Principles and Methods - Mr