RUNNING HEAD: TITLE PAGE 1 Healing Hertz: The Power of Music Therapy Amit Ben-Eliyahu Place Cartier Adult Education Center RUNNING HEAD: OUTLINE 2 Healing Hertz: The Power of Music Therapy -Introduction -Section 1: Music Therapy In Society I) Concept of Music Therapy II) Roots of Modern Music Therapy III) Modern Applications -Section 2: Music Therapy as a Treatment IV) Mental Conditions V) Physical Disorders VI) Rehabilitation -Section 3: Music Therapy for All VII) Cranial Development in Children VIII) Stress/Anger Management -Conclusion RUNNING HEAD: ABSTRACT • This research paper examines music therapy in its social, scientific and public respects. Music has existed since time immemorial and has been used by countless tribes and other aboriginal peoples for its restorative properties. For various chemical and neurological reasons, music has great effects on the human psyche and body. Men of healing and music realised this, and have utilised it for centuries. What we know today as music therapy began to emerge within the past few centuries as science progressed, and is today used to treat various conditions and disorders. It can have incredible effects on the mentally ill or handicapped, individuals with physical disabilities (muscle problems, chronic pains, etc.) and as a rehabilitative medium (physically, mentally and socially). Music has also been linked to intelligence through cranial development, as well as stress levels and general quality of life (music’s psychological effects are known to reduce stress and increase happiness and contentment in human subjects). 3 RUNNING HEAD: FACTS 4 Did You Know? - Music therapy stimulates parts of the brain that serve other functions such as speech, fine motor skills, etc. - Modern music therapy started with musicians performing live in hospitals after both World Wars - Music therapy can treat multiple issues including (but not limited to): autism, PTSD, psychosis, and more - Music therapy is not just for unhealthy individuals; it can be helpful for anyone - No musical talent or experience is required to benefit from music therapy - Studies have shown that classical music therapy can temporarily increase spatial IQ by 9 to 10 points - Music therapy does not necessarily imply classical music; studies have shown that the best responses are to the music preferred by the client RUNNING HEAD: SIGNIFICANCE 5 Music therapy is significant historically, socially and scientifically. Music has been used for centuries as a treatment for pain and suffering, and still is today. It provides to society an opportunity to improve quality of life and emotional states. It is also important scientifically as it is being used to help understand the mystery that is the human brain. RUNNING HEAD: MAIN POINT #1 6 Music Therapy In Society Music therapy has been around for millennia: traces of it have been found in scripts from ancient empires such as Rome, China, and Egypt, as well as in the Bible. However, music therapy in its modern form has been around since the 1930’s, when it started off as live music being played to traumatised soldiers after World War One. After doctors and nurses noted a definitively positive response to this method, it became widespread, and as a result of the rising demand of properly trained musicians, music therapy programs were created after World War Two. Today, music therapy has become far more concrete as a science due to improvements in neuro-imaging and recording techniques and is still being explored and discovered. RUNNING HEAD: MAIN POINT #2 7 Music Therapy as a Treatment Music therapy can be used to treat many different conditions and ailments. Various mental conditions (i.e., autism, Alzheimer’s disease, psychosis, depression, etc.) and physical disorders (such as physical and chronic pains, partial paralysis, seizures/epilepsy, etc.) and be treated with this form of therapy, usually to lessen pain suffering, although it does not necessarily cure these ailments. Music therapy can also be used to rehabilitate mentally, physically and socially, as is done with war veterans who suffer from PTSD, with stroke victims who have sustained brain damage, with autistic individuals, etc. RUNNING HEAD: MAIN POINT #3 8 Music Therapy For All Anybody can benefit from music therapy, not just individuals with emotional, mental or physical problems. Music therapy reduces stress and increases contentment. As a result of this, it increases quality of life. Music therapy can also be used to help cranial development in children, improve behavioural problems and increase concentration and memory skills. RUNNING HEAD: SOURCE #1 9 Thaut, Michael (Ph.D.) & McIntosh, Gerald (M.D.) (2010). How Music Helps to Heal the Injured Brain. The Dana Foundation. This is a highly informative and researched article (it provides 17 different sources) which addresses several technical and practical aspects of music therapy. Two particularly useful concepts described are: 1) neurological functions involved in music are not unique to music, and 2) music changes the anatomy of the brain (certain regions of the brain become larger and better connected). Quote #1: “(...)the brain areas activated by music are not unique to music; the networks that process music also process other functions.” Quote #2: “After novice pianists have just a few weeks of training, for example, the areas in their brain serving hand control become larger and more connected.” RUNNING HEAD: SOURCE #2 10 Music Therapy Association of British Columbia (2008). Music therapy: A Sound Decision. Mtabc.ca. This is a brochure published by the MTABC regarding music therapy. It addresses a wide spectrum of the aspects of music therapy, including autism, language and speech, cognitive/memory skills, grief, etc. Several specific examples are provided, along with quotations from certified specialists. It provides simple explanations on the functionality and benefits of music therapy as well as situations in which it may be useful. Quote: Accredited music therapists complete a minimum four-year Bachelor of Music Therapy degree. This is followed by a 1000-hour supervised clinical internship and submission of a written portfolio about their music therapy philosophy, internship experience, and case study. RUNNING HEAD: SOURCE #3 11 Campbell, Don (1997). The Mozart Effect. New York: Avon Books. Campbell’s book describes his personal experiences with music therapy as well a multitude of theories and clinical studies. The book addresses all aspects of music therapy and music in general, from illness and recovery to theology and everything in between. It is a very comprehensive source including many examples and citations. Quote #1: “Half an hour of music produced the same effect as 10 milligrams of Valium.” –Dr. Raymond Bahr Quote #2: “Patients at the Memphis Home for Incurables might have been otherwise miserable, but they were among the first in the (United States) to hear a young Elvis Presley on guitar.” RUNNING HEAD: DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 12 Any Questions? - Are there any questions? - Does anybody here have any first or secondhand experience with music therapy? - Was anything unclear that should be explained in greater detail in my research paper?