*
P3
* Wingate (1982):
*
“Any influence that disturbs the natural
equilibrium of the body”
* McGrath (1970):
“A substantial imbalance between demand
(physical/psychological) and response capability,
under conditions where failure to meet the
demand has important consequences”
* Allen (2013):
“A physical/ Psychological response to a stimulus
that evokes fear of failiure”
You need to find 3 separate definitions…
*
Negative aspect
of stress’…
Seen as the ‘
What does your description say??
Is it more
emotional or
physiological?
Eustress/
Stress
Good stress
Distress/
Bad stress
Gives us energy and
direction
- Keeps us fulfilled and
happy
Causes discomfort and
can lead to
illness/depression
Stress is typically described as negative and is associated with a
negative affect on an individual and their performance.
But stress can also serve as a mental and physical energy to
motivate us to do something and do it well
*
(pre game???)
Demands
e.g an
important
race.
Woods (1998)
Athletes
Perception
Of the
demands
Increased
Arousal
May lead to
Outcome
Positive
(challenging)
Increase in
motivation
and energy
Enhanced
performance
Negative
(threatening)
Increase in
anxiety and
negative
thoughts
Impaired
performance
* Trait Anxiety:
- A person experiences anxiety as part of their
personality. Feelings of nervousness come in a variety of
situations…
* State Anxiety:
- Anxiety felt in response to a specific situation
encountered.
People with high
trait anxiety will usually experience higher
levels of state anxiety
How will this affect an athletes performance?
*
Divided into 4 categories:
*
Internal-
All varied to the individual
The things that we think about: past
memories/experiences (how would injury affect
motivation?) self worth etc…
ExternalOur surroundings/environment, competition, weather
etc…
Sporting environmentSimilar to external factors: the level of competition,
bearing on the outcome, weather, pitch.
Occupational factorsOur working conditions and the job a person does. Within
a team it could be team mates/coaches etc…
How would Type
A and type B
personalities find
situations
stressful or not?
Cause of stress
Individual view of whether
the situation is threatening
Stress response: physical and
psychological changes
Positive/ negative changes in
performance
*
*
Fight or Flight
Response:
Sympathetic Nervous
System
Parasympathetic
Nervous System
Increased Adrenaline
Decreased Adrenaline
Increased HR
Slowed HR
Increased Breathing rate
Slower breathing rate
Increased Metabolism
Slower metabolism
Increased Heat production
Lower body temp
Muscle tension
Muscle relaxation
Dry mouth
Dry skin
Dilated pupils
Smaller pupils
- A stress response that
varies depending on the
‘perceived’ threat.
Physiological changes that
prepare us to turn and
fight the danger or run
away as fast as possible.
Sympathetic:
- Provide body with as much energy as
possible to confront or run away from
threat.
- Releases stress hormones, cortisol
and adrenaline…
Hairs on skin stand up
Digestion system slows
Diversion of blood to working
muscles and away from organs
Digestion system speeds
Parasympathetic:
- Provides relaxation response and
conserve energy after threat has passed.
Stress/ Anxiety has a 3 fold effect upon the body- causing
SOMATIC
BEHAVIOURAL
COGNITIVE (mental),
(physical) and
responses.
*
Cognitive Symptoms
Somatic Symptoms
Behaviour Symptoms
-Reduced
concentration
- Less interested
- Unable to make
decisions
- Sleep disturbances
- Making mistakes
- Unable to relax
- Quick losses of
temper
- Loss of sense of
humour
- Loss of selfesteem
- Loss of enthusiasm
- Talking/Eating/
- Racing heart
Walking fast
rate
-Interrupting
- Faster
conversations
breathing
- Fidgeting
- Lethargy
- Headaches
- Moodiness
- Butterflies
- Clumsiness
- Tight chest
- Accidents
- Muscular
- Nervousness
- Poor presentation
aches
- Increased
sweating
- Skin irritations
*Cognitive and somatic anxiety levels
may vary before, during and after
competition
High
Cognitive anxiety
Level of
anxiety
Somatic anxiety
Low
Before competition
During competition
Time
After competition
*
Fear of failure:
- Negative affect on
performance? Place too much
pressure on losing and forget
about the process of trying to
win?
Loss of self confidence
and concentration:
Confidence correlates to positive
performance, what happens
when this is lacking?
Nervous system:
- Increase within the sympathetic
nervous system (fight or flight
response).
Negative mental
state: Linked to
confidence, what is it
and how does it
contribute to
performance?
Fear of failure:
Decreased expectations
of success:
How does this affect performance…
will performer try as hard to be
successful if already in doubt of
potential success?
Loss of self confidence
and concentration:
Confidence correlates to positive
performance, what happens
when this is lacking?
Process of performance is forgotten and
performer becomes more fascinated on
directing behaviour to avoid losing, rather
than successful performance to win…
ANXIETY
*
*Assessment