Arkansas Student Success Symposium
Conway, AR
March 27, 2013
Presented by:
Laurie L. Hazard, Ed.D.
Bryant University
Smithfield, RI
[email protected]
[email protected]
www.lauriehazard.com
Laurie L. Hazard www.lauriehazard.com
Pedagogical Principle and Practical
Solutions
The Perennial Problem of
Teaching Motivation and
Addressing Procrastination
Laurie L. Hazard
Objectives

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


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Examine basic research findings
Explore behavior change model
Critique and understand flaws in current time management
pedagogy
Identify psychodynamics of procrastination from different
theoretical frameworks
Analyze and understand the cycle of procrastination
Improve strategies for combating your students’ as well as your
own procrastination
Discover tips to implement effective pedagogical tools
immediately
Laurie L. Hazard
Check Your Own Procrastination p. 2
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

Tasks that I am currently procrastinating about:
Other tasks I can recall procrastinating about in the past:
Is there a pattern - are there certain types of tasks I tend to
procrastinate about?

How do I know when I’m procrastinating?

Do I have favorite replacement activities?
Laurie L. Hazard
Research
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Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure that is not entirely
understood (Steel, 2007).
Some assert that procrastination is not a problem of time
management (Marano, 2007), yet twenty percent of people identify
themselves as chronic procrastinators (Marano, 2007)
Self-regulatory behavior is at the heart of being successful in
college (White & Kitchen, 1991).
The same study habits that contributed to success in high school are
unrelated to college performance (Matt, Perchersky, and Cervantes,
1991)
Time management practices and the ability to combat
procrastination are more predictive of first-year college
achievement than SAT scores and high school grades combined
(Hazard, 1997).
Laurie L. Hazard
Psychology of Adjustment


Definition of Psychology
New students must adjust their mental processes
(mindset) and behaviors (strategies) to be successful in
college in four areas:
Academic
 Social
 Emotional
 Intellectual

Laurie L. Hazard
Change Management: Transtheoretical
Model http://www.uri.edu/research/cprc/transtheoretical.htm
Dr. James Prochaska, University of Rhode Island, Cancer Prevention Research Center
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

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Stages of Change
Pre-contemplation: no intention to change
Contemplation: individual has identified the problem;
pros and cons of change are weighed
Preparation: individual decides there is a need to
action; specific plans and potential solutions are
developed
Action: individual puts their plan into action and
changes their behavior patterns
Maintenance: Individual works to prevent relapse and
consolidates gains
Laurie L. Hazard
Applying The Model to Time
Management



Pre-contemplation: I don’t need this (first-year
experience class, this study skills course, a planner), I
already know how to manage my time!!!!!!
Contemplation: I am so far behind in my work. I
can’t keep up. I don’t know what to do.
Preparation: I am going to: the Learning Center,
Academic Center for Excellence, a workshop, see a
learning specialist, ask a friend for help, ask my
mom what to do!
Laurie L. Hazard
Applying The Model to Time
Management (continued)

Action: individual puts their plan into action and
changes their behavior patterns:
 Prioritize
 To-Do
Lists
 Goal Setting
 Daily, Weekly, Semester Planners

Maintenance: Individual works to prevent relapse
and consolidates gains
 The
maintenance stage is rarely not
reached…………….
Laurie L. Hazard
Roadblocks to Effective Time
Management Practices
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The concept of time management is a misnomer
Time on task is rarely addressed
Motivation and self-efficacy are not typically
assessed
Procrastination behaviors and attitudes are not
identified
Psychodynamics of procrastination are not discussed
Engagement is not measured
Accountability is not created
Laurie L. Hazard
Psychodynamics To Be Considered
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
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Imposter Syndrome
Lying Component
Types:
(McIntosh, 1986)
(Hazard, 2012)
 Arousal
Types: Wait for the euphoric rush
 Avoiders: Fear of Success/Failure
 Decisional: If I don’t make a decision, I won’t be
responsible for the outcome
(Marano, 2007)
Laurie L. Hazard
Feeling Like A Fraud
Imposter Syndrome


“I still believe,” confessed Mike Myers, “that at any
time the No-Talent Police will come and arrest me.”
Myers is not alone.
The question is, why do so many clearly smart,
capable, successful people feel like intellectual
frauds who are merely impersonating a competent
person?
Dr. Peggy McIntosh, Wellesley College
Director of the Wellesley Centers for Women
Laurie L. Hazard
Three Theoretical Frameworks

Psychoanalytic Approach
 Sigmund

Phenomenological Approach/Humanistic Existential
 Carl

Freud
Rogers
Social Cognitive Approach
 Bandura
Laurie L. Hazard
Procrastinators Are Liars!
Procrastinators
put themselves in
the position of
lying to
themselves and
lying to others
Laurie L. Hazard
Different Types Of Liars

1. Absolute Integrity

2. Straight Shooter

3. Pragmatic Fibber

4. Pinocchio
Laurie L. Hazard
Absolute Integrity
About how many
times per day
do experts
estimate that
most people lie?
Laurie L. Hazard
Straight Shooter
Differentiate
between a
straight
shooter and a
pragmatic
fibber
Laurie L. Hazard
Pragmatic Fibber
Pragmatic
Fibbers lie for
various purposes
like to avoid
conflict
Laurie L. Hazard
Pinocchio
Students who
end up in
academic
difficulty
function in
denial
Laurie L. Hazard
Roger’s Theory Self-Concept

The thoughts, feelings, attitudes and behaviors that encompass who we
are.

Rogers called this the “phenomenal field.”

Changes over the lifespan

Openness to Experience/Remove Obstacles Toward growth

I am

Academic self-concept
FILL IN THE BLANK
Laurie L. Hazard
Academic Adjustment: A Student’s
Phenomenal Field
I quickly learned that the rigorous academic
program would require more time and effort
than my other school. Not to mention a
complete overhaul of my studying techniques.
The first thing that hit me was that I was no
longer able to get the most potential of
studying when I try to study in my room. I would
need to go to the Library or any quiet study
lounge.
Laurie L. Hazard
A Student’s Phenomenal Field:
Academic Self-Concept
As I’m sure you are slightly curious, what made me come
to this revelation was while I was trying to apply myself,
I realized I just can’t study properly on my own; I’m just
not cut out for this. I have always known that, so it isn’t
a big shock. Honestly, I don’t think I am, and never
thought I was, going to make it through all four years of
college anyway, it’s not for me. I need to just shut up
and do this class, no matter how pointless I may think it
is; what’s it matter anyhow, even if I learn one thing all
year it wouldn’t be a total waste of time. Learning is
learning, whether I know I’m doing it or not.
Laurie L. Hazard
Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality

1. Id

2. Ego

3. Superego
Laurie L. Hazard
Id
The Pleasure
Principle
 Primary Process
Thinking
 Childlike behavior
with the concern of
getting wants and
needs met

Laurie L. Hazard
Ego
The Reality
Principle
 Secondary
Process Thinking
 Role is to gratify
the id safely

Laurie L. Hazard
Superego

Perfection Principle
 Family
 Culture
 Religion
 Values
 Society
 College
Laurie L. Hazard
or University
Rationalization
Laurie L. Hazard
Anxiety
Laurie L. Hazard
Identify Your Replacement Activities
Laurie L. Hazard
Delay Gratification
Laurie L. Hazard
A Victim or A Volunteer
Provide A Task You Are
Currently Procrastinating
About
Laurie L. Hazard
Bandura


Social Cognitive Approach
Cognitive Dissonance
 Select
A Goal
 Monitor A Target Behavior
 Change Settings
 Establish Effective Consequences: Self-Chosen Incentives
 Consolidating Gains: gradually remove need for
artificial support
 Social Support and Creating Accountability
Laurie L. Hazard
Solutions
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Awareness of Behaviors That Produce Problems in Time
Management (p. 3)
Anti-Procrastination Behaviors and Habits (p. 4-5)
Pay Attention To the Ways In Which Lies Function In Your
Life (Lie Log Activity, p. 6)
Practice Behavior Change (p. 7)
Stop Putting It Off! A Five-Step Plan for Die Hard
Procrastinators (p. 7)
Enlist Social Support (p. 8-11)
http://www.lauriehazard.com/files/Hazard_FoundationsForLearning.pdf
Laurie L. Hazard
Top Ten Anti-Procrastination
Behaviors
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1. Study in a regular place at a regular time.
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2. Study during your periods of maximum alertness.
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
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3. Limit your blocks of study time to no more than
two hours at a time on any one course.
4. Set specific goals for each study unit.
5. Plan enough studying time to do justice to each
subject
Laurie L. Hazard
Top Ten Anti-Procrastination Behaviors
(continued)

6. Attempt to complete all assignments as soon as
possible after your class.

7. Provide for a spaced review.

8. Plan a schedule of balanced activities.

9. Trade time—don’t steal it.
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10. Enlist social support.
Laurie L. Hazard
Five-Step Plan
Expect difficulties
 Do a cost-benefit analysis
 Little steps for big feats
 Tune out negative thoughts
 Give yourself credit
 David D. Burns, M.D.

From “The Feeling Good Handbook” written by David D. Burns, M.D. The essay is titled,
“Stop Putting it Off!: A five-step plan to get even the most die-hard procrastinator
moving again.”
Stop Putting it Off!: A five-step plan to get even the most die-hard procrastinator moving
again
Laurie L. Hazard
Resources
See pages12-15 in
your packet
www.howtostudy.org
Thank you
Laurie L. Hazard
www.lauriehazard.com
[email protected] or [email protected]
Thank you for your participation!
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Dr. Hazard - Arkansas Student Success Symposium