Arkansas Student Success Symposium Conway, AR March 27, 2013 Presented by: Laurie L. Hazard, Ed.D. Bryant University Smithfield, RI [email protected] [email protected] www.lauriehazard.com Laurie L. Hazard www.lauriehazard.com Pedagogical Principle and Practical Solutions The Perennial Problem of Teaching Motivation and Addressing Procrastination Laurie L. Hazard Objectives Examine basic research findings Explore behavior change model Critique and understand flaws in current time management pedagogy Identify psychodynamics of procrastination from different theoretical frameworks Analyze and understand the cycle of procrastination Improve strategies for combating your students’ as well as your own procrastination Discover tips to implement effective pedagogical tools immediately Laurie L. Hazard Check Your Own Procrastination p. 2 Tasks that I am currently procrastinating about: Other tasks I can recall procrastinating about in the past: Is there a pattern - are there certain types of tasks I tend to procrastinate about? How do I know when I’m procrastinating? Do I have favorite replacement activities? Laurie L. Hazard Research Procrastination is a self-regulatory failure that is not entirely understood (Steel, 2007). Some assert that procrastination is not a problem of time management (Marano, 2007), yet twenty percent of people identify themselves as chronic procrastinators (Marano, 2007) Self-regulatory behavior is at the heart of being successful in college (White & Kitchen, 1991). The same study habits that contributed to success in high school are unrelated to college performance (Matt, Perchersky, and Cervantes, 1991) Time management practices and the ability to combat procrastination are more predictive of first-year college achievement than SAT scores and high school grades combined (Hazard, 1997). Laurie L. Hazard Psychology of Adjustment Definition of Psychology New students must adjust their mental processes (mindset) and behaviors (strategies) to be successful in college in four areas: Academic Social Emotional Intellectual Laurie L. Hazard Change Management: Transtheoretical Model http://www.uri.edu/research/cprc/transtheoretical.htm Dr. James Prochaska, University of Rhode Island, Cancer Prevention Research Center Stages of Change Pre-contemplation: no intention to change Contemplation: individual has identified the problem; pros and cons of change are weighed Preparation: individual decides there is a need to action; specific plans and potential solutions are developed Action: individual puts their plan into action and changes their behavior patterns Maintenance: Individual works to prevent relapse and consolidates gains Laurie L. Hazard Applying The Model to Time Management Pre-contemplation: I don’t need this (first-year experience class, this study skills course, a planner), I already know how to manage my time!!!!!! Contemplation: I am so far behind in my work. I can’t keep up. I don’t know what to do. Preparation: I am going to: the Learning Center, Academic Center for Excellence, a workshop, see a learning specialist, ask a friend for help, ask my mom what to do! Laurie L. Hazard Applying The Model to Time Management (continued) Action: individual puts their plan into action and changes their behavior patterns: Prioritize To-Do Lists Goal Setting Daily, Weekly, Semester Planners Maintenance: Individual works to prevent relapse and consolidates gains The maintenance stage is rarely not reached……………. Laurie L. Hazard Roadblocks to Effective Time Management Practices The concept of time management is a misnomer Time on task is rarely addressed Motivation and self-efficacy are not typically assessed Procrastination behaviors and attitudes are not identified Psychodynamics of procrastination are not discussed Engagement is not measured Accountability is not created Laurie L. Hazard Psychodynamics To Be Considered Imposter Syndrome Lying Component Types: (McIntosh, 1986) (Hazard, 2012) Arousal Types: Wait for the euphoric rush Avoiders: Fear of Success/Failure Decisional: If I don’t make a decision, I won’t be responsible for the outcome (Marano, 2007) Laurie L. Hazard Feeling Like A Fraud Imposter Syndrome “I still believe,” confessed Mike Myers, “that at any time the No-Talent Police will come and arrest me.” Myers is not alone. The question is, why do so many clearly smart, capable, successful people feel like intellectual frauds who are merely impersonating a competent person? Dr. Peggy McIntosh, Wellesley College Director of the Wellesley Centers for Women Laurie L. Hazard Three Theoretical Frameworks Psychoanalytic Approach Sigmund Phenomenological Approach/Humanistic Existential Carl Freud Rogers Social Cognitive Approach Bandura Laurie L. Hazard Procrastinators Are Liars! Procrastinators put themselves in the position of lying to themselves and lying to others Laurie L. Hazard Different Types Of Liars 1. Absolute Integrity 2. Straight Shooter 3. Pragmatic Fibber 4. Pinocchio Laurie L. Hazard Absolute Integrity About how many times per day do experts estimate that most people lie? Laurie L. Hazard Straight Shooter Differentiate between a straight shooter and a pragmatic fibber Laurie L. Hazard Pragmatic Fibber Pragmatic Fibbers lie for various purposes like to avoid conflict Laurie L. Hazard Pinocchio Students who end up in academic difficulty function in denial Laurie L. Hazard Roger’s Theory Self-Concept The thoughts, feelings, attitudes and behaviors that encompass who we are. Rogers called this the “phenomenal field.” Changes over the lifespan Openness to Experience/Remove Obstacles Toward growth I am Academic self-concept FILL IN THE BLANK Laurie L. Hazard Academic Adjustment: A Student’s Phenomenal Field I quickly learned that the rigorous academic program would require more time and effort than my other school. Not to mention a complete overhaul of my studying techniques. The first thing that hit me was that I was no longer able to get the most potential of studying when I try to study in my room. I would need to go to the Library or any quiet study lounge. Laurie L. Hazard A Student’s Phenomenal Field: Academic Self-Concept As I’m sure you are slightly curious, what made me come to this revelation was while I was trying to apply myself, I realized I just can’t study properly on my own; I’m just not cut out for this. I have always known that, so it isn’t a big shock. Honestly, I don’t think I am, and never thought I was, going to make it through all four years of college anyway, it’s not for me. I need to just shut up and do this class, no matter how pointless I may think it is; what’s it matter anyhow, even if I learn one thing all year it wouldn’t be a total waste of time. Learning is learning, whether I know I’m doing it or not. Laurie L. Hazard Freud’s Three Parts of the Personality 1. Id 2. Ego 3. Superego Laurie L. Hazard Id The Pleasure Principle Primary Process Thinking Childlike behavior with the concern of getting wants and needs met Laurie L. Hazard Ego The Reality Principle Secondary Process Thinking Role is to gratify the id safely Laurie L. Hazard Superego Perfection Principle Family Culture Religion Values Society College Laurie L. Hazard or University Rationalization Laurie L. Hazard Anxiety Laurie L. Hazard Identify Your Replacement Activities Laurie L. Hazard Delay Gratification Laurie L. Hazard A Victim or A Volunteer Provide A Task You Are Currently Procrastinating About Laurie L. Hazard Bandura Social Cognitive Approach Cognitive Dissonance Select A Goal Monitor A Target Behavior Change Settings Establish Effective Consequences: Self-Chosen Incentives Consolidating Gains: gradually remove need for artificial support Social Support and Creating Accountability Laurie L. Hazard Solutions Awareness of Behaviors That Produce Problems in Time Management (p. 3) Anti-Procrastination Behaviors and Habits (p. 4-5) Pay Attention To the Ways In Which Lies Function In Your Life (Lie Log Activity, p. 6) Practice Behavior Change (p. 7) Stop Putting It Off! A Five-Step Plan for Die Hard Procrastinators (p. 7) Enlist Social Support (p. 8-11) http://www.lauriehazard.com/files/Hazard_FoundationsForLearning.pdf Laurie L. Hazard Top Ten Anti-Procrastination Behaviors 1. Study in a regular place at a regular time. 2. Study during your periods of maximum alertness. 3. Limit your blocks of study time to no more than two hours at a time on any one course. 4. Set specific goals for each study unit. 5. Plan enough studying time to do justice to each subject Laurie L. Hazard Top Ten Anti-Procrastination Behaviors (continued) 6. Attempt to complete all assignments as soon as possible after your class. 7. Provide for a spaced review. 8. Plan a schedule of balanced activities. 9. Trade time—don’t steal it. 10. Enlist social support. Laurie L. Hazard Five-Step Plan Expect difficulties Do a cost-benefit analysis Little steps for big feats Tune out negative thoughts Give yourself credit David D. Burns, M.D. From “The Feeling Good Handbook” written by David D. Burns, M.D. The essay is titled, “Stop Putting it Off!: A five-step plan to get even the most die-hard procrastinator moving again.” Stop Putting it Off!: A five-step plan to get even the most die-hard procrastinator moving again Laurie L. Hazard Resources See pages12-15 in your packet www.howtostudy.org Thank you Laurie L. Hazard www.lauriehazard.com [email protected] or [email protected] Thank you for your participation!