Stephen Brady, Ph.D.
Director, Mental Health Counseling and Behavioral Medicine
Associate Professor of Psychiatry
BUSM
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To discuss the results of the Sixteen
Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
To understand how leader attributes impact
performance
To describe how situational variables impact
leadership
To identify a comprehensive model of
leadership
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Our Focus: Career Development Report
Most of you received several reports including
Practitioner, Manager & Career Development
Thoughts about the results?
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Factor Analysis of primary components of
personality (Raymond Cattell)
Copyright 1993 by the Institute for
Personality and Ability Testing
185 Items with 16 primary personality
variables
Psychometric properties include; internal
reliability averages .76 with a range of .68 to
.87, test-retest at .80 for 2 weeks and .70 for
2 months
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Global Factor Scale Descriptors
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Extraversion
Anxiety
Tough-Mindedness
Independence
Self-Control
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Moderately Extraverted
Moderately Anxious
Tough-Minded
Independent
Lower Self-Control
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Warmth
Reasoning
Emotional Stability
Dominance
Liveliness
RuleConsciousness
Social Boldness
Sensitivity
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Vigilance
Abstractedness
Privateness
Apprehension
Openness to
change
Self-Reliance
Perfectionism
Tension
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Problem Solving Resources
Coping with Stressful Situations
Interpersonal Reaction Styles
Organizational Role and Work Preferences
Career Activity Interests
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Being aware of emotions
Identifying your own emotions
Identifying others emotions
Managing your own emotions
Managing others emotions
Using emotions to problem solve
Expressing emotions adaptively
Leader's Operating Environment
Social
Appraisal
Skills
Cognitive
Abilities
Personality
Motives
Values
Distal Attributes
Problem
Solving
Skills
Expertise
Tacit
Knowledge
Proximal Attributes
Emergence
Leader
Processes
Effectiveness
Advancement
& Promotion
Leadership Criteria
From: “Leader Traits and Attributes”, by S.J. Zaccaro, C. Kemp & P. Bader , 2004, in J. Antonakis, A.T.
Cianciolo, and R. J. Sternberg (Eds.), The Nature of Leadership (pg.122), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Copyright 2004 by Sage Publications.
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How one formulates, makes and acts on
decisions
Synthesis of wisdom, intelligence and
creativity (WICS)
Some aspects of these traits may be
modifiable, flexible and dynamic
(Sternberg, American Psychologist, 2007)
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Create a sense of mission
Motivate others to join them on the mission
Create an adaptive social architecture for
their followers
Generate trust and optimism
Develop other leaders
Get results
(Bennis, American Psychologist, 2007)
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Unrealistic-Optimism
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Egocentrism
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what I want)
(I am so smart and effective I can do
(I am the only one who matters, not the people who
rely on me for leadership)
Omniscience (I know everything… and as a result you do not
recognize your limitations)
Omnipotence (I am so powerful I can do what I want)
Invulnerability (I can get away with anything because I am too
clever to be caught)
Moral Disengagement (Ceasing to view leadership in moral
terms but only in terms of what is expedient)
(Bandura, 1999; Sternberg, 2007)
Wise leaders skillfully balance the interest of all of
the stakeholders, including their own interests,
those of their followers, and the organization. They
also recognize the need to align the interest of
their group with those of other stakeholders. Wise
leaders understand that what might appear to be a
prudent course of action over the short term may
not be so over the long-term (Sternberg, 2007)
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There seems to be moderate correlation
between intelligence and leadership
effectiveness (Riggio, Murphy & Pirozzolo, 2002; Spreitzer, McCall &
Mahoney, 1997)
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Academic Intelligence is necessary but not
sufficient
Must also have practical intelligence
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Cognitive complexity & flexibility
Social intelligence
Emotional intelligence
Adaptability
Openness
Tolerance for ambiguity
(Zacarro, 2007)
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Do not define a problem the way everyone else does
Are willing to analyze whether their solution is best
Sell their solution
Recognize how knowledge can help and hinder
creativity
Take sensible risks
Are willing to surmount obstacles
Believe in their ability to accomplish the task at hand
Tolerate ambiguity
Find extrinsic rewards for things they are intrinsically
motivated to do
Continue to grow intellectually
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Effectiveness is impacted by situational
factors not under leader control
Situations shape how leaders behave
Situations influence the consequences of
leader behavior (an effective leadership style in one situation may
not be in another)
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Leadership depends upon the situation
Leadership is a process not a person
The process involves motivating others
Incentives…both intrinsic and extrinsic
matter
Collaboration in pursuit of a goal
“Great Things” are in the minds of leaders
and followers and may not be desired by all
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Followers play an active role in constructing
leadership relationships
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Empowering the leader and influencing behavior
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Determining the consequences of the leadership
relationship
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Successful leadership may be understood as the fit
or match between a leaders traits, style and
orientation and follower maturity and situational
challenges
(Avolio, 2007)
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Briefly describe your leadership style
What could get in the way of you being a wise
leader?
What is one concern you have about being a
leader.
What do you want feedback about?
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How do you understand the influence of
biology, psychology and social factors and
leadership?
How might leadership skills differ for
Scientists, Practitioners, Administrators
across settings?
Stephen Brady, Ph.D.
Director, Mental Health and Behavioral Medicine
BUSM sbrady@bu.edu
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Emerging Leadership Forum Leadership Attributes