CHAPTER 9 Worker Stress and Negative Employee Attitudes and Behaviors Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology by Ronald E. Riggio Defining Worker Stress A stressor is an environmental event that is perceived by an individual to be threatening. Worker stress involves the physiological and/or psychological reactions to events that are perceived to be threatening or taxing. Negative stress (or distress) can cause stress-related illness and can affect absenteeism, turnover, and work performance. Sources of Worker Stress Situational stress is stress arising from certain conditions that exist in the work environment or the worker’s personal life. Stressful occupations include air traffic controller, health care provider, police officer, and firefighter. Characteristics of jobs related to worker stress include heavy workload, poor working conditions, physical dangers, and dealing with difficult clients and coworkers. Sources of Worker Stress Organizational sources of worker stress include work task stressors, such as: Work overload, which results when a job requires excessive speed, output, or concentration. Underutilization, resulting from workers feeling that their knowledge, skills, or energy are not being fully used. Sources of Worker Stress Organizational sources of worker stress include work role stressors, such as: Job ambiguity, which results from a lack of clearly defined jobs and/or work tasks. Lack of control, a feeling of having little input or effect on the job and/or work environment. Physical work conditions, including extreme temperatures, loud/distracting noises, crowding, poor lighting and ventilation. Interpersonal stress, which results from difficulties dealing with others (coworkers, customers, supervisors) in the workplace. Sources of Worker Stress Organizational sources of worker stress include work role stressors, such as: Emotional labor, which involves the demands of regulating and controlling emotions in the workplace. Harassment, including sexual harassment, harassment due to group membership (e.g., gender, race, sexual orientation), and being singled out by a coworker or supervisor. Organizational change, including mergers, changes in work technology, and personnel/managerial changes Work-family conflict, which results from efforts to balance competing demands of work and family. Sources of Worker Stress Individual (dispositional) sources of work stress include: The Type A behavior pattern, a personality characterized by excessive drive, competitiveness, impatience, and hostility. Susceptibility to stress vs. hardiness, the notion that some people may be more resistant to the health-damaging effects of stress. Self-efficacy, an individual’s beliefs in his/her abilities to engage in courses of action that will lead to desired outcomes. Measurement of Worker Stress Physiological measures of stress include blood pressure monitoring, EKGs for heart rate, or blood tests for stress-linked hormones (cortisol) and cholesterol. Difficulties with such measures include variation of such physiological processes within each person throughout the day and variation between individuals. Medical personnel are needed to administer such measures. Measurement of Worker Stress Self-report assessments of stress include reports about organizational conditions and reports about psychological and/or physical states. Reports on organizational conditions involve questions about job autonomy, feedback, task identity, task significance, skill variety, workload, etc. Self-report measures of psychological /physical stress include the Stress Diagnostic Survey, the Occupational Stress Indicator, and the Job Stress Survey. Measurement of Worker Stress Measurement of stressful life events involves self-reports of significant events in a person’s recent history that can cause stress. One measure is the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, a checklist where individuals total the numerical “stress severity” scores associated with significant life events experienced in the past year. Research suggests that persons with high personal stress indexes perform more poorly, have higher absenteeism, and change jobs more frequently (Bhagat, 1983). Measurement of Worker Stress Person-environment fit (P-E fit) refers to the match between a worker’s abilities, needs, and values, and organizational demands, rewards, and values. P-E fit is positively related to organizational commitment and negatively related to turnover (Hult, 2005). Measurement of P-E fit involves assessing worker skills and abilities, along with job demands and features of the work environment. Effects of Worker Stress Stress-related illnesses include ulcers, colitis, high blood pressure, heart disease, and migraine headaches. Stress can also worsen common colds and infections. The relationship between stress and performance is complex, and generally is curvilinear (involving an inverted U), where both very low and very high stress are associated with poor performance. Effects of Worker Stress Job burnout is a syndrome resulting from prolonged exposure to work stress that leads to withdrawal from the organization. Burnout is especially high in human service professions. Burnout occurs in three phases: 1. Emotional exhaustion 2. Depersonalization 3. Feelings of low personal accomplishment Coping with Worker Stress Individual coping strategies are techniques such as exercise, meditation, or cognitive restructuring that can be used to deal with work stress. More efficient work methods, including time management, may also be used, although their success depends on individual commitment. Vacation time and voluntary absences may also be used to reduce stress, although missed work may increase stress upon the employee’s return to work. Coping with Worker Stress Organizational coping strategies are techniques that organizations can use to reduce stress for all or most employees. Organizational strategies include: improving person-job fit and employee training and orientation; increase employees’ sense of control; eliminating punitive management; removing hazardous work conditions; providing a supportive work environment; and improving organizational communication. Negative Employee Attitudes and Behaviors Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs) are deviant, negative behaviors that are harmful to an organization and its workers. Meta-analyses suggest that CWBs are more prevalent in younger employees and those with lower job satisfaction (Lau et. al., 2003). CWBs, and workplace aggression and violence, are linked to trait negative affectivity, anger, and other personality variables (Douglas and Martinko, 2001). The incidence of CWBs is negatively related to the incidence of organizational citizenship behaviors (Dalal, 2005). Negative Employee Attitudes and Behaviors Alcohol and drug use in the workplace is related to workplace accidents, decreased productivity, increased absenteeism and turnover; it costs billions of dollars annually. Workers who report problems with alcohol or drugs have greater job instability and lower job satisfaction. Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) involve counseling that is provided for a variety of worker problems, particularly drug and alcohol abuse.