 Framing Youth: Ten
Myths About the Next
 Smoked: Why Joe Camel is Still Smiling
 The Scapegoat Generation: America’s War
on Adolescents
 Kids and Guns: How Politicians, Experts,
and the Press Fabricate Fear of Youth
 37
states require parental involvement in a
minor’s decision to have an abortion.
 21 states require parental consent only, 3 of
which require both parents to consent.
 11 states require parental notification only, 1
of which requires that both parents be
 5 states require both parental consent and
 7 states require the parental consent
documentation to be notarized.
36 states that require parental involvement have an
alternative process for minors seeking an abortion
 36 states include a judicial bypass procedure, which
allows a minor to obtain approval from a court
 5 states require judges to use specific criteria, such
as a minor’s intelligence or emotional stability, when
deciding whether to waive a parental involvement
 13 states require judges to use the “clear and
convincing evidence” standard that the minor is
mature and the abortion is in her best interest when
deciding whether to waive parental involvement
states also permit a minor to obtain an
abortion if a grandparent or other adult
relative is involved in the decision.
 Most states that require parental
involvement make exceptions under certain
 33 states permit a minor to obtain an
abortion in a medical emergency
 15 states permit a minor to obtain an
abortion in cases of abuse, assault, incest or
 1990
Supreme Court ruling in Hodgson v.
Minnesota allowed new curbs on abortion
 Those who are most affected are the young
and the poor
 Parental involvement laws do not promote
parental involvement
 No requirement that the male partner seek
parental consent (most males involved in
teenage pregnancies are adults)
 Testified
in Connecticut on behalf of his
daughter, Becky, who died when she
sought an illegal abortion
 The choice was not hers; it was made by
 She did not want to disappoint her
parents (like many teens)
 She did not want to go before a pro-life
 You
cannot legislate that families
 Legislators, judges, and parents are
making the decisions, not the young
women who facing an unplanned
 Raised Bill #5447: No accommodation for
a situation like Becky’s; no safe and
reasonable option
 Culture, Society, and
 Women's Healthcare in Advanced
Practice Nursing
 Human Sexuality in Health and Illness
 Nursing Research: Theory and Practice
 Sex and gender disparities in health:
• Biological sex
• Social, cultural, environmental conditions
 Poverty
 Social and socioeconomic status
 Racism
 Sexism
 Heterosexism
 Environmental exposures
 Sociocultural and political stressors
 Personal behavior patterns
 Gender
preference: as many as 60
million and up to 100 million females are
missing in the world’s population owing
to gender preference (Coale, 1991;
United Nations, 1994)
 The female biological advantage may be
eroded by the social disadvantage of
being female (children competing for
scare resources)
 Prostitution
 Sex
 Genital mutilation
 Nutritional Disparity
 Lack of access to health care
 Lack of education
 Reproductive roles and marriage
 Employment opportunities
 Exposure to violence
 70%
of people living in poverty are women
and girls
 Women perform 2/3 of world’s working
hours but earn only 10% of the world’s
income (PLAN 2008)
 2/3 of the out-of-school children in the
world are girls
 1 in 7 girls in developing countries marries
before age 15
 Half of sexual assaults are perpetrated on 15
– 19 year old girls
 Malnutrition
 Birth trauma – obstructed labor – fistulae
 Complications of pregnancy are the leading
cause of death in women 15-19 in the
poorest countries (Mayor 2004)
 Approximately 70,000 adolescents die each
year in childbirth
 Genital mutilation (1.3 million women)
 Exposure to war (abduction/rape)
 Occupational and environmental factors
 Family
 Prenatal care
 Immunizations
 HIV/AIDS prevention
 Physical environment (including food
and water)
 Eliminating rape as an atrocity of war
 Eradicating poverty
 Investing in education