Presented by:
Agustian Singgih
Herna O. S
Juanita Fathul Amani
Nadya Aufa
11/317478/EK/18640
11/319841/EK/18645
11/315980/EK/18633
11/315829/EK/18591
11/315829/EK/18591
Three important trends in governance and
reform:
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Tackling the problem of corruption,
implementing
Decentralization
Encouraging broad-based development
participation.
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The Planning Mystique
The Nature of Development Planning
Planning in Mixed Developing Economies
The Rationale for Development Planning
National planning was widely believed to
offer the essential and perhaps the only
institutional
and
organizational
mechanism for overcoming the major
obstacles to development and for
ensuring a sustained high rate of
economic growth.
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Economic planning
Economic plan
Comprehensive plan
Partial plan
Planning process
The private sector in developing countries typically
comprises four traditional forms of private
ownership and a more recent emerging one:
◦ The subsistence sector,
◦ Small-scale individual or family-owned commercial business
and service activities in the formal and informal urban
sectors
◦ Medium-size commercial enterprises
◦ Large jointly owned or completely foreign-owned
manufacturing enterprises,mining companies, and
plantations, catering primarily to foreign
◦ A growing number of relatively large
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Market Failure
Resource Mobilization and Allocation
Attitudinal or Psychological Impact
Foreign Aid
What went wrong? Why has the early euphoria about planning gradually been
transformed into disillusionment and dejection?
o
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Theory vs Practice
In theory, planning is made in the presence of:
market failure, divergences between private and social valuations,
resource mobilization, investment coordination, etc.
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Government policy in many developing countries has been one of
often exacerbating rather than reconciling the divergencies.
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Government failure > market failure.
- Failure in planning process
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Deficiencies in Plans and Their Implementation
Ambitious plans
Insufficient and Unreliable Data
Diminishing the accuracy and internal
consistency of economywide quantitative plans
Unanticipated Economic Disturbances, External
and Internal
- Difficult to engage in short-term forecasting
o
o
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Institutional weaknesses
Incompetent and inqualified civil servants
Cumbersome bureaucratic procedures
Excessive caution and resistance to
innovation and change
Interministerial personal and departemental
rivalries
Lack of commitment to national goals
Burreaucratic corruption
o
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Lack of political will
A will to develop on the part of politicians is
likely to meet with staunch resistance,
frustration, and internal conflict
Conflict, Postconflict, and Fragile States
- The
large-scale failure of a state to
otherwise
function
meaningfully
has
resulted in catastrophic failure of even the
most basic development objectives
The disenchantment with planning and the
perceived failure of government intervention
 market mechanism as a key instrument
 developing countries reduce the role of public
sector, encourage greater private sector activity,
eliminate distortion in interest rates, wages, &
the prices of consumer goods
 more productive allocation of investment
 improving comparative advantage in the
international economy by lowering exchange
rates, promoting exports, and eliminating trade
barriers
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Nathan Keyfitz and Robert
Dorfman,
14 institutional and cultural
requirements
for
the
operation
of
effective
private markets:
Trust
Law and order
Security of persons and of
property
Balancing competition with
cooperation
Division of responsibility
and diffusion of power
Community altruism
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Social mobility, legitimation
of ambition, and toleration
of competitiveness
Materialistic values as a
stimulus to greater
production
Deferring gratification to
generate private saving
Rationally unconstrained by
tradition
Honesty in government
Efficient forms of
competition, as opposed to
monopolistic control
Freedom of information
Flows of information
without restrictions or
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Property rights clearly
established and demarcated
Commercial laws and courts
to enforce them
Freedom to establish
businesses in all sectors
except those with
significant externalities,
without excessive licensing
requirements
A stable currency and a
reliable and efficient system
for making transfers
Public supervision or
operation of natural
monopolies
Provision of adequate
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Autonomous tastes—
protection of consumers’
preferences from influence
by producers and
purveyors
Public management of
externalities (both harmful
and beneficial) and
provision of public goods
Instruments for executing
stabilizing monetary and
fiscal policies
Safety nets—provisions for
maintaining adequate
consumption for
individuals
Encouragement of
innovation, in particular,
issuance and enforcement
of patents and copyrights
There is no mention of:
 shared growth
 eliminating absolute poverty
 reducing inequality
etc.
It can be concluded that the state has had a
broader role in the most successful
development experiences than encapsulated
by the Washington Consensus.
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An important dimension of the New Consensus is the
emphasis on government’s responsibility to focus on
poverty alleviation.
Free-market policies of the 1980s and early 1990s were
viewed as inadequately helping the poor.
The New Consensus also appears to reflect a growing
sentiment that the goal of poverty eradication is finally
achievable, especially given recent progress in health,
education, and other areas.
The stress on market-based development and limiting
government’s role in direct production continues to be the
consensus view.
The new elements emphasize:
the importance of building state capacity
responsiveness by reacting to government failure with
judiciously designed reforms
seeking feasible improvements in economic institution
encouraging a deepened civil society role.
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The New Consensus does not include some
features that have considered significant to
East Asian success: an active or at least a
highly targeted industrial policy—picking
winners—to overcome coordination failures,
because these remain controversial.
Industrial policy is generally ineffective when
government is less capable or more
constrained.
a key part of government’s role is to help
secure the foundations for economic
development by ensuring that the
requirements for an effective market-based
economy are met.
Agustian Singgih
11/317478/EK/18640
Raquel Fernandez dan Dani Rodrik
mengemukakan contoh yang terkenal dari
suatu situasi di mana risiko pemilih netral dapat
memilih terhadap kebijakan dari mayoritas.
Demokrasi:
 Banyak politisi korupsi
 Tujuan pembangunan strategis jangka
pendek
 Pertumbuhan ekonomi lambat tapi stabil
 Peran penguasa lemah
Otokrasi:
 Pertumbuhan ekonomi cepat tapi tidak stabil
 Tujuan pembangunan strategis jangka
panjang
 Tingkat korupsi tapi sedikit
 peran penguasa pemerintah yang kuat
World Bank, mendefenisikan NGOs sebagai
“organisasi swasta yang menjalankan kegiatan
untuk meringankan penderitaan, mengentaskan
kemiskinan, memelihara lingkungan hidup,
menyediakan layanan sosial dasar atau
melakukan
kegiatan
pengembangan
masyarakat”.
Dalam konteks yang lebih luas, istilah NGOs
dapat diartikan sebagai semua organisasi
nirlaba yang tidak terkait dengan pemerintahan
dan pada umumnya organisasi berbasis nilai
(value-based organizations) yang bergantung
kepada, baik sebagian atau keseluruhan,
bantuan amal (charitable donations) dan
pelayanan sukarela (voluntary service).
Tujuan:
Pengembangan
dan
Pembangunan
Infrastruktur, Mendukung inovasi, ujicoba dan
proyek
percontohan,
Memfasilitasi
komunikasi,Bantuan
teknis
dan
pelatihan,
Penelitian,Monitoring
dan
Evaluasi,dan Advokasi untuk dan dengan
masyarakat miskin.
Peran:
 Inovasi
memprogram desain dan keefektifan kebijakan
pemerintah
 Program flexibility
Melihat seberapa pentingnya program
pemerintah terhadap masyarakat
 Specialized technical knowledge
Memberikan pengetahuan khusus atau
spesialisasi pada program pemerintah
Peran:
 Targeted local public goods
Mengawasi kinerja pemerintah terhadap barang
publik atau fasilitas sosial
 Common property resource management
design and implementation
Mengawasi kinerja pemerintah terhadap sumber
daya, biasanya sumber daya alam
Peran:
 Representation and advocacy
Memrepresentasikan apa yang masyarakat
butuhkan
Herna O.S.
11/319841/EK/18645
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Pengurangan masalah korupsi
◦ Menyalahgunakan kepercayaan publik untuk
kepentingan pribadi
◦ Pentingnya pembersihan korupsi
1. Pemerintahan yang jujur bisa
mempromosikan pertumbuhan dan
mempertahankan pendapatan yang tinggi
secara berkelanjutan.
2. Secara langsung, pemerintahan yang
bersih juga merupakan tujuan dari
pembangunan termasuk pada maksimisasi
pemberdayaan fasilitator.
3. Korupsi menjadi masalah bagi masyarakat
miskin karena mengakibatkan pembatasan
pada kesempatan/kemampuan mereka untuk
keluar dari garis kemiskinan.
- Pembersihan masalah korupsi menjadi
bagian dalam strategi memerangi
kemiskinan,
 korupsi muncul seperti “pajak progresif”
bagi si miskin.
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Desentralisasi
Karakter desentralisasi di Asia sangat erat
kaitannya dengan fenomena demokrasi.
Partisipasi dalam Pembangunan
Tujuan pertumbuhan ekonomi
Pembangunan manusia tanpa
partisipasi???
◦ Partisipasi membuat suatu pekerjaan/ proyek
berjalan lebih baik.
◦ Peran NGOs
Kebijakan pembangunan dalam rasionalitasnya
memperhatikan fenomena kegagalan pasar,
mengusahakan supaya sumber daya
termobolisasi dan teralokasi dengan baik dan
adil, mempertimbangkan pengaruh
sikap/psikologi dalam proses perencanaan
pembangunan, yang akhirnya juga
mempertimbangkan syarat penerimaan bantuan
luar negeri (khususnya bagi negara berkembang).
Kebijakan pembangunan sangat ideal dengan
partisipasi masyarakat secara keseluruhan, baik
dalam pemerintahan maupun masyarakat
sipil/biasa.