Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Chapter 11
Physical and Cognitive
Development in Adolescence
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Conceptions of Adolescence
 Biological perspective:
 puberty
 G. Stanley Hall:
storm and stress
 Social perspective:
© Pressmaster/Shutterstock
 Margaret Mead: social and cultural influences
 Balanced point of view:
 biological, psychological, and social influences
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Hormonal Changes in Puberty
 Growth hormone and thyroxine
 Boys:
 androgens: testosterone
 Girls:
 estrogens
 adrenal androgens
© Goodluz/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sex Differences in
Body Growth in Adolescence
Boys
Growth
spurt
 starts age 12½
Girls
 starts age 10
 shoulders broaden
Proportions  longer legs
 hips broaden
 gain more muscle,
aerobic efficiency
 add more fat
Muscle–fat
makeup
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sexual Maturation
Primary Sexual
Characteristics
Secondary Sexual
Characteristics
 Maturation of the
reproductive organs
 Girls: menarche
 Boys: spermarche
 Other visible parts of the
body that signal sexual
maturity
 Girls: breasts
 Boys: facial hair, voice
change
 Both: underarm hair
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Individual Differences in
Timing of Puberty





Heredity
Nutrition, exercise
SES
Early family experiences
Secular trends
© Samuel Borges Photography/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Adolescent Brain Development
Synaptic pruning
continues
Expansion of
synaptic
connections,
myelination
Cognitive
Prefrontal cortex advances:
 attention
 planning
Linkages among  integrating
cortical regions
information
 self-regulation
strengthen
Increased
More sensitive to responsiveness to
 stress
Neurotransmitter
excitatory
 pleasure and
response changes
messages
novelty
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Sleep Habits in Adolescence
 Still need almost as much sleep, but go
to bed later
 Lack of sleep impairs executive
function:
 reduced achievement
 increased anxiety, depressed mood
 high-risk behaviors
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Parent–Child Relationships
 Rise in conflict:
 has adaptive value:
psychological
distancing
 different views of
adolescent readiness
for responsibility
 Most conflict is
© Iakov Filimonov/Shutterstock
 mild
 balanced by
affection, support
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Consequences of Pubertal Timing
Girls

Early
Maturing




Late
Maturing


Boys
Unpopular, withdrawn,
low in confidence
Less positive body
image
More deviant behavior
Prone to lasting
difficulties

Popular
Sociable, school
leaders
More positive body
image






Popular
Self-confident,
independent
More positive body
image
More deviant
behavior
Unpopular
Anxiety, depressed
mood
Less positive body
image
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Nutrition in Adolescence
 Calorie needs increase
 Poor food choices
common:
 skipping breakfast
 eating fast foods
 Family meals associated
with healthier diet
© artemisphoto/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Eating Disorders
Anorexia
nervosa






Bulimia
nervosa


Starve self due to fear of getting fat
Equally common across SES groups
Racial/ethnic variations
Heredity, neurotransmitter abnormalities,
parenting style, and personal/cultural
factors contribute
Difficult to treat
Strict dieting, excessive exercise, and
purging
Heredity, parenting style, and
personal/cultural factors contribute
More common and easier to treat than
anorexia
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
U.S. Adolescents Reporting Ever
Having Had Sexual Intercourse
Figure 11.3
(From U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services,
2012f.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Characteristics of
Sexually Active Adolescents
Personal
Family
Peer
Educational
 Early pubertal timing
 Childhood impulsivity
 Weak sense of personal control
 Step-, single-parent, or large family
 Little or no religious involvement
 Weak parental monitoring, disrupted
parent–child communication
 Sexually active friends and older
siblings
 Alcohol, drug use
 Poor school performance
 Low educational goals
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Adolescent Contraceptive Use
 20% of U.S. sexually
active teenagers do
not use consistently
 Reasons:
 social environment:
lack of meaningful
education and work
 unrealistic about
consequences
 sexual exploitation
© Alexey Klementiev/Fotolia
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Homosexuality
 Impact of heredity:
 X-linked
 prenatal sex hormones
 birth order
© Pressmaster/Shutterstock
 Sequence of coming out:
 feeling different
(ages 6–12)
 confusion (ages 11–15)
 self-acceptance (end of
adolescence)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Adolescents and STDs
 STD rates highest in adolescence:
 especially high in United States
 1 out of 5 to 6 sexually active teens
affected
 AIDS most serious:
 manifests 8–10 years later
 often infected during adolescence
 Females more easily infected
 STD education improving but still
insufficient
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
U.S. Adolescent
Pregnancy Statistics
 About 727,000 teen
pregnancies in most
recently reported year
 12,000 younger than
age 15
 1 in 4 end in abortion
 87% of births to
unwed mothers
Figure 11.4
(From Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2011c.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Factors Contributing to
Adolescent Parenthood
 Low parental warmth,
abuse
 Repeated parental divorce
 Poor school achievement
 Alcohol, drug use
 Antisocial behavior
 Low SES
© Monkey Business
Images/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Risks for Teenage
Mothers and Babies
© travis manley/Shutterstock
 Low educational
attainment
 More time as single
parent
 Economic difficulties
 Pregnancy and birth
complications
 Weak parenting skills
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Teen Pregnancy
Prevention and Intervention
Prevention
Strategies
Intervention
Strategies
 Better sex education
 Skills for handling
sexual situations
 Information and access
to contraceptives
 Academic and social
competence
 School involvement
 Health care
 Help staying in school
 Job and lifemanagement training
 Parenting instruction
 Adult mentors
 Affordable child care
 Father support
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
U.S. Adolescent Substance Use
 Have tried, by
grade 10:
 cigarettes—33%
 alcohol—58%
 illegal drugs—37%
 By end of high school:
 11% smoke regularly
 27% report recent
heavy drinking
 25% have used highly
addictive drugs
© Elena Rostunova/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Substance Use versus Abuse
Experimenters
Abusers
 Psychologically
healthy
 Sociable
 Sensation-seeking
 Low SES
 Family mental health
problems, substance
abuse
 Child abuse
 Impulsivity, hostility
 Drug-taking starts
earlier
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Prevention and Treatment
 Good school programs
© Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock
 promote effective
parenting
 teach skills to resist
peer pressure
 reduce social
acceptability of drugs
 Interventions to
prevent harm
 Family and individual
therapy
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Piaget’s Theory:
Formal Operational Stage
 Hypothetico-deductive reasoning:
 problem solving based on a hypothesis,
deducing logical, testable inferences
 pendulum problem
 Propositional thought:
 evaluating the logic of verbal
propositions without using real-world
circumstances
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Piaget’s Pendulum Problem
Figure 11.5
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Gains in Information Processing:
Executive Function
 Attention
 Inhibition
 Strategies
 Knowledge
 Metacognition
© arek malang/Shutterstock
 Cognitive self-regulation
 Speed of thinking
 Processing capacity
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Scientific Reasoning
 Coordinating theory with evidence
 Contributing factors:




working memory capacity
exposure to complex problems
metacognitive understanding
open-mindedness
 Adolescents and adults vary widely
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Consequences of Adolescent
Cognitive Changes
 Self-consciousness and self-focusing:
 imaginary audience
 personal fable
 Idealism and criticism
 Decision making:
 influenced by
© CREATISTA/Shutterstock
immediate reward
 fall back on well-learned,
intuitive judgments
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
School Transitions
in Adolescence
 Grades decline with
each transition:
 higher academic
standards
 less supportive teaching–
learning environment
 Drop in self-esteem:
 additional strains increase
risk
© Intellistudies/Shutterstock
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Problem Behaviors Across
Transition to High School
Figure 11.12
(Adapted from Roeser, Eccles, &
Freedman-Doan, 1999.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Helping Adolescents
Adjust to School Transitions
© michaeljung/Shutterstock
 Parent involvement,
monitoring
 Close friendships
 Smaller units within
schools
 Same-ethnicity peers
 Homeroom teacher
relationships
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Supporting
Academic Achievement
Child-rearing
practices
Peer influences
School
characteristics
 Authoritative
 Joint decision making
 Parent involvement in education
 Valuing high achievement
 Warm, personal teaching
 Classroom learning experiences
 Opportunities to break out of low
academic tracks
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
High School
Graduation Rates
Figure 11.8
(From OECD, 2011a.)
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Factors Related to
Dropping Out
 Low grades, low academic self-esteem
 No extracurricular involvement
 Family background:
 uninvolved parenting style
 limited parental education
 Grade retention
 Large, impersonal schools
 General education, vocational tracks
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk
Dropout Prevention
Strategies
© Armadillo Stock/Shutterstock
 Remedial instruction
 Personalized counseling
 High-quality vocational
training
 Addressing personal
factors related to
dropout
 Extracurricular
participation
Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.