‫רגשות בעבודת שרות‬
‫וניהול‪:‬‬
‫בין כעס (של מטופלים)‬
‫למעש (של עובדים)‬
‫• פרופסור ענת רפאלי‬
‫הפקולטה להנדסת תעשיה וניהול‬
‫‪http://Anat.Rafaeli.Net‬‬
‫‪1‬‬
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2
‫ישנם רגשות לגיטימיים‬
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3
Aggression Sometimes Wanted
(Berkowitz, 1989)
4
Anger and Aggression in
Organizations
• Frustration  Aggression (Dollard et al, 1939)
• Learned social behavior (Bandura, 1973)
• Reactive social behavior (Berkowitz, 1989)
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5
Emotions Communicate
• Anger =
Other-responsibility
• Guilt, Shame =
Self-responsibility
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6
Personal Emotion
• Reactions to the Environment
• Reactions to (Personal / Social)
Construction of Reality
• “Self Preservation” Effects
• Socialization Effects
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Emotion
Can be
Managed
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8
We All Have Roles to Play
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9
“Emotion Labor:”
Management of Displayed Emotions for
Organizational Role (and Goals)
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Recognition of Emotional Labor
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11
Growth of the Service Sector
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12
Rewards for Emotional Labor:
Lowers Pay Unless Job Entails High Cognitive
Skills
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13
Types of Display Rules
When you feel ….. in an interaction with ….. you can …
Show it
more than
I feel it
Express it
as I feel it
Show it
less than I
feel it
Show it
with
another
expression
Hide it by
showing
nothing
Hide it by
showing
something
else
Meaning
for
employee
Surface Acting
Emotion
Dissonance
High Emotion
Labor
Requirements 
More Abusive
Clients + Less
Personal Control
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Perspectives on Emotional Labor
• An Occupational Requirement
(What am I told to do)
• An Emotion Display Issue
(What do I do?)
• An Individual Emotional Dilemma
(How do I feel?)
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Types of Emotion Display Rules
• Integration: Show positive emotions (e.g.,
empathy) to create positive
emotion (e.g., calm, happy) in others.
• Differentiation: Show negative emotions
(e.g., anger) to create negative emotions
(e.g., anxiety, fear) in others.
• Masking: Show no (neutral) emotions
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17
Medical Service:
Integration Emotions Presumed
Being “Nice” is a Part of the Staff Job
18
Medical Service Emotion Labor
Being “Nice” is viewed as a part of the job
 Formal Expectation:
Compassion, Pleasantness, Patience
 Formal Goals:
To Calm Patients / Relatives
 Actual Displays:
Depend on Multiple Factors
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19
Influences on Displayed Emotions
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20
Sutton, R. I. & Rafaeli, A. 1988.
Untangling the relationship between displayed emotions and
organizational sales
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Emotional Display Norms
• In Medical Service:
 Staff Expected to Be “Nice” regardless of
what they feel
BUT ALSO
• Busy Time Norms
• Slow Time Norms
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22
Learning Emotion Display Rules
• Learned in Professional Training
• Learned from Immediate Environment
• Learned from rewards
• What emotion-displays are rewarded?
• Research on Medical Service: Emotion
Neutrality
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23
Emotional Dissonance
• Gap between staff FEELINGS and
DISPLAYED emotions
• In Medical Service:
 Gap between expectations of staff to be
“Nice” and what staff members feel
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24
Effects of Emotion Labor
• Less of a Problem:
Requirement to Display Positive Emotions
• Key Problem:
Inability (Need to Mask) Negative
Emotions
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25
Culture Effects:
Do you Express Felt Anger …?
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
USA
Israel
Singapore
om
er
SR
C
us
t
C
er
M
an
ag
bo
r
Su
C
ow
or
di
na
te
ke
r
France
Percent of Respondents
Percent who said anger should be expressed
Target Person
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26
Anger Management:
Who is Better Off?
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27
Reality is What You Chose to See:
Staff vs. Patients in Medical Service
)
He’s such a
difficult
patient!
She is not
doing her
job!
28
Displayed Emotion Requirements
Increase Staff Burnout
• Emotional Exhaustion
• Depersonalization
• Lost Sense of Personal Worth
And … Display of
Expected (Positive (
Emotions
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29
“Emotion Cycles”
Behavior
One Person’s
Emotions
Another
Person’s …
Emotions
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30
‫‪Study:‬‬
‫‪Patients and Family Members Read‬‬
‫‪Scenarios‬‬
‫‪Non Burnout‬‬
‫‪Burnout‬‬
‫חולה המאושפז במחלקה פנימית‪ ,‬ניגש‬
‫חולה המאושפז במחלקה פנימית ניגש‬
‫לתחנת האחיות‪ .‬האחות חייכה ושאלה "מה לתחנת האחיות‪ .‬האחות נראתה עייפה‬
‫שלומך דוד?"‪ ,‬הוא אמר "אני לא מרגיש טוב‪ ,‬וחסרת אנרגיות‪ .‬החולה אמר "אני לא‬
‫מרגיש טוב‪ ,‬אפשר לקבל אופטלגין?"‬
‫אפשר לקבל אופטלגין?"‪ ,‬האחות הסתכלה‬
‫האחות נאנחה ושאלה‪" ,‬באיזה חדר אתה?"‬
‫בניירות וענתה "אין בעיה‪ ,‬חבל שקמת‪,‬‬
‫הוא ענה "אני דוד‪ ,‬מחדר חמש" היא‬
‫בפעם הבאה תקרא לי אני אעזור לך"‪ .‬היא‬
‫הסתכלה בניירות שעל השולחן‪ ,‬הוציאה‬
‫הוציאה מהמגירה כוס עם אופטלגין‪ ,‬שמה‬
‫מהמגירה כוס עם אופטלגין‪ ,‬שמה אותה על‬
‫אותה על הדלפק ואמר "אתה צריך עוד‬
‫הדלפק וחזרה לענייניה‪.‬‬
‫משהו?"‬
‫‪31‬‬
Staff Burnout influences How Staff and
Patients Expect Patients to Behave
Expect Patients
to be Angry
Patients
Frustrated
and Angry
Staff
Burnout
Patients Sense
Maltreatment
32
Predicting the Future?
Nurses Predict Patients’ Aggression
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33
Socialization Effects:
Patients Respond:
Prior Hospital Experience Creates Anger
Regardless of Staff Burnout
5
4.5
4
Patients’
Anger
3.5
Low Patient
Tenure
3
2.5
High Patient
Tenure
2
1.5
1
Adj R2=.18
0.5
0
No Staff Burnout
Staff Burnout
Measuring and
Discussing
Emotion is
Difficult and
Confusing
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35
Self-Serving Bias
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36
Study: Is Anger Rewarded?
“Greg and George are in a
hospital and complain about their
treatment.”
Greg complained ANGRILY.
George complained CALMLY.
Who will the staff address first?
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Person who acted
ANGRY perceived as
rewarded
The Edges of the distribution
60
54.5
Percentage
50
40
30
20
10
1.5
0
Calm rewarding (Answer<=-2)
Anger rewarding (Answer>=2)
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38
95% of people:
OTHERS will Reward Anger
… I Myself will Not
Percents
Reward to Angry or Embarrassed Customer
Self vs. Other
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
95
54
46
5
Will SOMEONE Reward?
Anger
Will YOU Reward?
Embarrassment
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39
Do We Know How We Behave?
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40
“Welcome to Lake Wobegon,
where all the women are
strong, all the men are
good-looking, and all the
children are above average”
Not Me!
GARRISON KEILLOR
“Naïve Realism”
“I am better than most people”
“I understand what others do not see”
“I don’t make mistakes that others make.”
“I DO NOT REWARD ANGER!”
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Medical
Research and
Emotion
Research?
Slides and Paper Available at http://Anat.Rafaeli.net
42
Coping with
Patients’
Anger is
Depleting
Other
People’s
Hostile
Emotions

Staff Person
Resource Depletion
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43
Customer Contact Center
Customer
request
Employee
Task:
Handling
details.
Multiple
folders
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44
Customers Convey Anger/Rudeness
Polite Customer
My home phone number
changed. Need to update it
please. My number is 037526654. Thank you very
much, George Ashley.
Angry – Rude Customer
It’s such a nightmare to reach
you! Your service is just
horrible. Update my home
phone to 03-7526654. George
Ashley
Hi please note my request to
move me to the weekend deal.
My password is "Friends".
Thank you, Josh.
I am sick and tired of your
lousy service. Move me to the
weekend deal. Password is
"Friends". Josh.
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45
“Eric speaking, how may I help you?“
Polite (Calm) Customer
“Hi, I am trying to browse and seem to have problems.
Most of the time I can’t reach anything. Can you help me?
Angry / Rude Customer
“What do you mean by “Hi”? I have been waiting for half an
hour. I want to disconnect from your lousy service”
• Employee feelings?
• Employee performance?
46
Customer Anger and Employee Burnout
3
2.71
2.5
1.93
2
1.55
Calm
1.34
1.5
Angry
1
0.5
0
Employee Exhaustion
Employee Day Off
All differences significant (p<.001)
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Customer Anger and Employee Work
Performance
0.55
0.5
0.45
Mean % of requests
handled correctly
0.4
0.35
Angry
Customers
N
M
SD
34
0.66
0.10
0.3
0.25
0.2
Neutral
Customers
35
0.72
0.12
neutral
angry
Customer Displayed Emotion
t = -2.05, p < .05
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Percent of requests handled
correctly
0.6
Test of Employee Performance
(Raven Matrices)
Additive Effects on Employee
Performance
6.5
Mean Number of items
recalled
0 angry calls
N
M
SD
36
6.00
1.17
Memory Performance
6
5.5
5
4.5
4
3.5
0
1 angry call
36
5.56
1.40
2 angry calls
36
4.44
1.44
3 angry calls
36
4.14
1.29
1
2
3
Number of Angry Calls
(F(3,140)=15.94, p<.000)
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Conclusion:
Emotions are Out There
Beware!
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