Part 2
Principle: Be True to Thy Brand
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1.
2.
3.
How does marketing communication work both as
a form of mass communication and interactive
communication?
How did the idea of advertising effects develop,
and what are the problems in traditional
approaches to advertising effects?
What is the Facets Model of Advertising Effects,
and how does it explain how advertising works?
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Surprisingly, many experts are not sure how advertising
works, or even if it works well.
This is even more of a problem for the new digital
media and other forms of marketing communication.
The problem: poorly executed advertising doesn’t
communicate well to its intended audience or have
the impact its creators desired.
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“I know half my advertising is wasted, but I
don’t know which half.”
John Wanamaker, department store baron
For more quotes on the impact of advertising, visit:
www.advertisinghalloffame.org/members
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Mass communication is a process. Consider:
The SMCR Model:
1. Source
2. Sender
3. Message
4. Channels of communication
5. Receiver
Feedback is obtained by monitoring the response of
the receiver to the message.
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Referring to Figure 4.1B, discuss:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Message
Medium
External noise
Internal noise
Feedback
Can you identify each of these elements in the Ford
SYNC example from this chapter?
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

Mass communication is traditionally a one-way
process with the message moving from sender to
receiver.
Interactive communication is two-way—a dialogue—
and is where marketing communication is headed.
◦ The source and receiver change positions as the
message bounces back and forth between them.
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The move toward interactivity


Interest in buzz marketing indicates that marketing
communication is moving beyond two-way
communication.
Consumers can now:
◦ react to messages with comments, phone calls, email inquiries.
◦ Initiate communication as well as receive it.
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The move toward interactivity
 Advertisers must learn to receive (listen) as well as
send information.

Feedback is now occurring in real time through:
◦ personal selling
◦ customer service
◦ online marketing
◦ toll-free numbers
◦ E-mail
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Permission marketing defined:
“A practice that invites consumers to sign up for
messages or self-select themselves into a brand’s
target market.”
This trend mirrors the shift from one-way to two-way
communication.
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

The Internet has radically
changed our conversation.
Consider the effects of:
◦ Texting
◦ Twitter
◦ Hashtags
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AIDA
 Attention
 Interest
 Desire
 Action
Think/Feel/Do
Think about the message, feel something about the
brand, then do something, such as try it.
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Domains
Messages have various impacts on consumers
simultaneously in:
1.
2.
3.
Perception
Learning
Persuasion
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According to advertising pioneer David Ogilvy:

Information processing is key for certain types of
ads.

Emotion, is equally important informing attitudes.

Persuasion is a key function as well.
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Problems with traditional approaches
1.
2.
They presume a predictable set of steps.
Some effects are missing—brand linkage and
motivation.
Ultimately, brand communication is the most
important consideration.
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publishing as Prentice Hall
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In this YouTube ad, An unsuspecting but newly recognized
Canadian citizen wakes up to find his bedroom has become a center
of Canadian symbols. How is information processing used here?
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

Does a more complete
job of explaining how
advertising creates
consumer responses.
It is useful in both
setting objectives and
evaluating advertising
effectiveness.
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Effective advertising creates six types of consumer
responses:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
See/Hear: the Perception Facet
Feel: the Affective or Emotional Facet
Think/understand: the Cognitive Facet
Connect: the Association Facet
Believe: the Persuasion Facet
Act/Do: the Behavior Facet
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


Perception: The process by which we receive
information through our five senses and assign
meaning to it.
Selective perception: Consumers select messages
to which they pay attention.
For an advertisement to be effective, it first must
be noticed or at least register on some minimal
level on our senses.
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Factors driving the perception response



Exposure
Media planners want consumers to see or hear the
message.
Selection and attention
Selective attention: consumers choose to attend to
the message.
Interest
Receiver mentally engages with the ad or product.
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Factors driving the perception response

Relevance
Message connects on some personal level.

Curiosity
Results from questioning, wanting to know more.

Awareness
Ad makes an impression; registers with consumer.

Recognition
People remember the ad. Recall means they
remember what it said.
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Messages that are relevant
speak to a consumer’s
special interests.
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The synergy requirement


Using an IMC approach, marketers
coordinate all marketing communication
messages to create synergy.
This means individual messages have more
impact working jointly than they would on
their own.
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The subliminal issue


Subliminal effects are message cues given below
the threshold of perception.
Subliminal messages are designed to get past
your perceptual filters by talking directly to your
subconscious.
As a class:
For more on this issue, see “A Matter of Principle:
Ice Cubes, Breasts, and Subliminal Ads.”
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The subliminal issue
A liquor advertising campaign
showed ice cubes with shapes in
them and deliberately called
attention to these supposedly
“subliminal” messages.
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


Affective responses mirror our feelings
about something.
“Affective” describes something that
stimulates wants, touches the emotions,
and elicits feelings.
Brand messages can arouse a range of
different emotions.
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Factors that drive the
affective response


Wants and desires
Driven by emotions;
based on wishes,
longings, cravings.
Excitement
Our emotions and
passions are aroused.
This poster from the “Nightlife
Navigators” campaign works to
create a negative feeling about the
financial impact of a DUI ticket.
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Factors that drive the affective response



Feelings
Emotional appeals based on humor, love, or fear.
Liking
If you like the ad, those positive feelings transfer
to the brand.
Resonance
A feeling that the message rings true.
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
Cognition refers to how customers:
◦ search for and respond to information
◦ learn and understand something.

It’s a rational, “left-brain” approach.

As a class:
Discuss how American Airlines used the leftbrain/right brain approach in an ad to creatively
communicate its new seating in coach.
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Factors that drive the cognitive response



Need
Ad messages here describe something missing in
the consumer’s life.
Cognitive learning
Presenting facts, information, and explanations
leads to understanding.
Comprehension
The process by which we understand, make sense
of things, or acquire knowledge.
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Factors that drive the cognitive response


Differentiation
The consumer’s ability to separate one brand from
another, based on an understanding of a
competitive advantage.
Recall
A measure of learning or understanding. One
remembers the ad, the brand and copy points.
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

Association means using symbols to communicate.
It is the primary tool used in brand communication.
Brand linkage reflects the degree to which:
1. the associations presented in the message
2. the consumer's interest
are connected to the brand.
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Factors that drive the association response



Symbolism
A brand takes on a symbolic meaning. It stands for
certain, usually abstract, qualities.
Conditioned learning
Thoughts and feelings linked to the brand.
Transformation
A product takes on meaning and is transformed
into something special.
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


Persuasion: influencing
or motivating the
receiver of a message to
believe or do
something.
Attitude is an inclination
to react in a given way.
Attitudes are expressed
as beliefs when people
are convinced.
A dramatic photo of Mount McKinley
associates drinking Coke with an
enduring and majestic mountaintop.
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Factors that drive the persuasion response



Motivation
Something prompts one to act in a certain way.
Influence
◦ Opinion leaders may influence others’ attitudes.
◦ Word of mouth is created by strategies that
engage influencers.
Involvement
◦ The degree to which one attends to messages
and how they make product decisions.
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Factors that drive the persuasion response



Engagement
The consumer is “turned on.”
Conviction
Consumers agree with a message and achieve a
state of certainty or belief about a brand.
Preference and intention
Here, consumers are motivated by conviction.
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Factors that drive the persuasion response


Loyalty
Brand loyalty involves attitude, emotion, action.
It’s built on customer satisfaction.
Believability and credibility
◦ Believability: refers to credibility of the message.
◦ Credibility: trustworthiness of the source.
◦ Source credibility: the person delivering the message is
respected, trusted, and believable.
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

Behavior is the action response.
It can involve a number of actions including:
◦ Trying or buying the brand
◦ Visiting a store
◦ Returning an inquiry card
◦ Calling a toll-free number
◦ Clicking on a Web site
A question for you:
What is the difference between direct action and
indirect action?
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Factors that drive the
behavioral response



Mental rehearsal
Advertising attempts to
create virtual memories.
Trial
This is important for new or
expensive products.
Buying
Advertising sometimes
stimulates sales by the
call to action.
Designed to inspire action, this ad was
used during World War I to convince
young people to join the military.
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Factors that drive the behavioral response



Contacting
Consumers respond by contacting the advertiser.
Advocating and Referrals
◦ Advocacy: speaking out on a brand’s behalf.
◦ Referral: a satisfied customer recommends a
favorite brand.
Prevention
Presenting negative messages about an unwanted
behavior and creating incentives to stimulate the
desired behavior.
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Reviewing the Facets of Effects Model
When its six factors work together, they can create a
coherent brand perception.
However, we must remember that:
1. The effects are interdependent.
2. They are not all equal for all marketing
communication situations.
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

The “Strong” Theory
Advertising can persuade people who had never
bought a brand to buy it once, and then repeatedly.
The “Weak” Theory
Advertising has a limited impact on consumers;
best used to reinforce existing brand perceptions.
Delayed Effects
A consumer may see or hear an advertisement but
not act on that message until a later date.
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In Chapter 5, we will:


Explore the cultural, social, psychological,
and behavioral influences that affect
consumer responses to advertising.
Discuss how groups of consumers are
segmented and targeted.
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“Perfect Pitch: Ford’s in Sync with Singer/Songwriter”


In this campaign targeted to Hispanic consumers, Ford
built brand awareness of the new SYNC technology
through experiential activities.
About 100,000 consumers visited SYNC Zones at
concerts by the Juanes.
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“Perfect Pitch: Ford’s in SYNC with Singer/Songwriter”
 This campaign generated many test-drive leads, with a
conversion rate of almost 30 percent.
Key lessons:
 Ford paired SYNC technology with its cars in a way that
appealed to Hispanic consumers.

As a class: What others can you think of?
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