HUMAN FACTORS &
ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH
PSYCHOLOGY
GROUP MEMBER:
 LIM SOO KHOON
 WONG KIAN KOK
 NGU NGOK WEI
 CHONG KOK CHUN
 MOHAMAD AZLAN BIN MOHD NAJIB
 MUHAMMAD FIRDAUS BIN ISHAK
HUMAN FACTORS
 Human factors is a specialty area of I/O
psychology concerned with designing tools,
machines, work systems, and workplaces to fit
workers.
 Human factors also has a goal of training workers
to use machines and systems and to protect
worker safety and comfort.
 The earliest roots of human factors lie with
Frederick Taylor, but human factors focuses more
on the worker than the work task.
OPERATORMACHINE
SYSTEMS
HUMAN
FACTORS
HUMAN
ERROR
WORKSPCE
DESIGN
OPERATOR-MACHINE SYSTEMS
• Definition: the interaction of one or more
persons with one or more tools or devices to
perform some task
• The human factors psychologist views the
operator and the machine as engaged in a twoway interaction
 To design an operator-machine system, a human
factors psychologist often begins with a detailed
job analysis
 Psychologist take into account the respective
strengths of both the human operator and the
machine system
 The next step is for the human factors
psychologists to coordinate these activities (in
terms of inputs and outputs of both parties,
operator and machines)
Displays
 Machine communicate with human operator
through a variety of displays.
 Some of these displays are visual ,such as the
radar screen an air traffic controller uses or the
light on your auto mobile dashboard.
 Others are auditory : bells, buzzers and horn
that are often used to attract the operator’s
attention.
 Type of displays:
 Tactile displays
Olfactory displays
 Regardless of the type of display, speed and
accuracy are often of utmost importance
when considering which to use in an efficient
operator-machine system.
 Of the various modes, visual and auditory
displays are by far the most common.
 Human factors psychologists are concerned with
both the speed and accuracy of operators when
reading visual displays and will consider such
factors as the brightness of the display, its size and
other qualities.
 A common problem is giving operators too much
information that can overload the operator or
delay response time.
 Auditory displays designed to get the operator’s
attention and are typically used as warning
systems because they usually communicate
information faster and more efficiently than visual
displays.
Operator Information Processing and
Decision Making
 When a machine displays output information
about operating status, it is time for the
human part of the system to go to work.
 Human factors psychologists study the
perceptual process of how operators take in
information from machine displays and the
factors that can improve accurate perception.
 The operator takes this information, which
must then be classified and interpreted.
 Then, the operator must compare any
information provided by a machine display
to some cognitively stored information.
 The sound of a bell may be classified as a
warning signal and interpreted as indicating
that it is time for the operator to change
some machine operation.
 To classify and interpret the incoming
information, the operator relies on memory,
calling on past experience with the machine
system.
 Through
experience and training, the
operator has learned the specific language
that this particular system uses, which then
serves as a reference for interpreting
whatever messages the machine displays are
outputting.
 The next step is the decision making.
 A variety of decision-making situations can
arise in operator-machine interactions.
 The most basic is whether or not an
operator action is needed.
 The operator might rely on memories of
how this situation was handled in the past
or try to recall what the “normal” procedure
is in this instance.
Controls
 Controls are the various knobs, switches, buttons,
pedals, levers, and the like that are connected to
the operation of a machine.
 An on-off switch or a forward reverse lever cause
very general changes in machine operations.
 A volume dial or a channel/frequency selector on
a radio, can be designed to make more precise
changes.
 Some of these controls are shape-coded to help
the operator know immediately which control is
being activated.
 The operator needs to put a hand on the control
to know what machine function is regulated by
that control.
 Advance Control System:
 Touch screen Control
 Tele-operator
 Voice Control
COMPARISON OF FIVE COMMON CONTROLS
Human Error
Definition (Reason, 1990)
 “The failure of a planned action to be completed
as intended”(error of execution)
 “The use of a wrong plan to achieve an
aim”(error of planning)
Type
 Active error
 Latent error
Incident occur due to
 Poor design
 Senior management decision making
 Procedure
 Lack of training
 Limited resources
Example of incident
 Three Mile Island
 Chernobyl
WORKSPACE DESIGN
 Definition: The design and arrangement of
equipment, space and machinery in a work
environment.
 Engineering Anthropometry is the measurement
of physical characteristics of the body and
development of equipment to fit those
characteristics.
 Workspaces should be designed not for
functional efficiency, but for physical and
psychological comfort of the worker.
 Anthropometrics :
Measurement of the dimensions of the
body and other physical characteristics.
 There are two types of measurement:
Static (Structural)
Dynamic (Functional)
Static (Structural) Anthropometry
 Distances are measured when the body in
fixed position.
 They consist of :
Skeletal dimensions
Contour dimensions.
 Doesn't include clothing or packages.
Dynamic (Functional) Anthropometry
 Distances are measured when the body is in
motion or engaged in a physical activity.
 They includes reach, clearance, volumetric
data (kinetosphere).
 Static anthropometric data exists more than
dynamic anthropometric data even though
dynamic data are more representative of actual
human activities.
 Sanders and McCormick offers a system of
priorities for making choices about design
elements:
Primary visual tasks.
 Primary controls for interaction in the primary visual
task.
 Control-display relationships.
 Concerns the arrangement of elements that are used in
sequence.
 To locate conveniently those elements that are used
frequently.
REFERENCE
Books:
 Jewell,
L.
N.
(1998).
Contemporary
Industrial/Organizational
Psychology
Third
Edition. Pacific Grove, CA :Brooks/Cole
Publishing.
 Ronald E. Riggio (2003). Introduction to
Industrial/Organizational
Psychology
Fourth
Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ :Pearson
Education/Pearson.
Website:
 http://www.chfg.org/resource/human-factors-theory
 http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/alsaleh/.../WorkSpace%20Design.ppt
 http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/studentdownloads/DE
A3250pdfs/AnthroDesign.pdf
THANK
YOU