Chapter 9:
Motivation and
What drives your behavior?
What is motivation?
motivational video
Understanding Motivation
 Motivation refers to factors that activate, _________,
arouses, and sustain goal-directed behavior.
 Motives are the “whys” of behavior - the needs or
wants that drive behavior and explain why we do what
we do. What’s your motive for seeking a higher
 There are different types of motivations. Sometimes a
person is driven to do something because of an
external reward or the avoidance of an unpleasant
consequence. This is called ‘extrinsic motivation’,
because the performance of that action leads to an
outcome that is separate from or external to the
Understanding Motivation
 ________________ is the motivation in which a
person performs an action because the act itself is
____________ or satisfying in some internal manner.
 Biologically determined and innate patterns of
behavior that are unlearned in the presence of
certain stimuli is called ______________.
 Instinctive behaviors are genetically programmed,
innate patterns of response that are specific to
members of a particular species.
 According to instinct approach theorists, our
motivation is governed by innate patterns of
behaviors similar to animals.
 A______________ is a requirement of some
material that is essential for survival. Having a
need leads to: 1) psychological tension, as well
as, 2) a physical arousal that motivates the
organism to act in order to fulfill the need and
reduce the tension. This tension is called a
 Drive theory is the belief that behavior is
motivated by drives that arise from biological
needs that demand satisfaction.
Drive-reduction theory
 A __________________ - Is a state of deprivation or
deficiency. A Drive is a state of bodily tension, such as
hunger or thirst, that arises from an ____________ need.
The satisfaction of a drive is called drive reduction.
_________________________ proposes that there is a
connection between internal physiological states and
outward behavior.
 Primary drives are innate drives, such as hunger, thirst, and
sexual desire, that arise from basic biological needs;
something you are born with. Acquired (secondary) drives
are drives that are learned or acquired through experience,
or conditioning such as the drive to achieve monetary
 Drive theory is based on the principle of homeostasis, the
tendency of the body to maintain a steady internal state.
Psychological Needs
 Psychologist David McClelland (1961, 1987)
proposes a theory of motivation based on
psychological needs: achievement, affiliation, and
 The need for achievement involves a strong desire to
succeed in attaining challenging goals and to receive
feedback on their accomplishment.
 The need for affiliation is a need for friendly social
interactions and relationships with others; and to be
held in high regard by those around them. Popularity
Psychological Needs
 The need for Power, is the need to have control over
people; to have high status and prestige.
 Personality and nAch: Carol Dweck’s Self-theory of
motivation – The need for achievement is closely
linked to personality factors, including a person’s
view of how self can affect the understanding of how
much a person’s actions can influence his or her
success. Self is defined as the beliefs one holds
about one’s abilities and relationships to others.
Persons who have and internal locus of control tend
to achieve more than those who operate from a
external locus of control. Value the
_________________ process.
Need for stimulation –
Another explanation for human
 Stimulus motives are internal states (unlearned) that
prompt inquisitive, stimulation-seeking, and exploratory
 Arousal theory states that whenever the level of
stimulation dips below an organism’s optimal level, the
organism seeks out stimulation. People have an ideal
level of tension that pushes them to achieve.
 The relationship between arousal and task
performance generally takes the form of an inverted Ushaped curve. This relationship is known as the
Yerkes-Dodson Law which states that people perform
best under conditions of ____________arousal.
Need for Stimulation
 _______________ refers to the person that needs
more arousal than the average person.
 Psychological factors that are included in motivation
includes: incentives, cognitive dissonance, and
psychosocial needs.
 Incentive theory has the belief that our attraction to
particular goals or objects motivates much of our
 Incentives are rewards or other stimuli that motivate
us to act; that lures us into action; that pulls us to our
goal. Is your goal pulling you or are you pulling it???
 _______________ is when behavior is explained
in terms of the external stimulus and its rewarding
properties. The rewarding properties exist
independently of any ___________ or
_________________ and can cause people to act
only upon the incentive.
 Expectancy-value theories are incentive theories
that assume the actions of humans cannot be
____________ or fully understood without
understanding the beliefs, values, and the
importance that a person attaches to those beliefs
and values at any given moment in time.
 Many theorists see motivation as a combination
of both the “push” of internal needs or drives and
the “pull” of a rewarding external stimulus.
Humanistic Approaches: Maslow’s
of Needs – According to Maslow,
___________________ is the point that is
seldom reached at which people have satisfied
the lower needs and achieved their full human
potential. Peak experiences are the times in a
person’s life during which self-actualization is
temporarily achieved.
Abraham Maslow’s
Hierarchy of Needs
(1) Physiological needs: Hunger, thirst,
avoidance of pain, sexual gratification,
(2) Safety needs: Safe and secure housing,
protection from crime and harsh weather.
(3) Love and Belongingness needs: Emotional
intimacy, friendships, social connections.
(4) Esteem needs: Achievement, respect,
prestige, status, approval.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
(5) Cognitive needs: To know, understand,
and explore.
(6) Aesthetic needs: To appreciate symmetry,
order, and beauty.
(7) Self-Actualization needs: Fulfillment of
individual potential.
(8) Transcendence needs: To help others
achieve self-actualization.
 ___________________________ – Is a
theory of human motivation in which the
social context of an action has an effect on
the type of motivation existing for the action.
Self-determination theory
 In this theory, there are three inborn and
universal needs that help people gain a
complete sense of self and whole, healthy
relationships with others. The three needs
are autonomy (being in control of one’s own
behavior and goals), competence (the need
to be able to master the challenging tasks of
one’s life), and __________________ ( The
need to feel a sense of belonging, intimacy,
and security in relationships with others).
What happens in the body
to cause hunger?
 Hunger occurs when our blood sugar level drops and fat is
released from fat cells to provide fuel that cells use until we are
able to eat again.
 _______________ and glucagons are hormones secreted by the
pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
in the body. Insulin ________________ the level of glucose in
the bloodstream, while glucagons increases the level.
 The hypothalamus has two separate areas that are controlled by
the levels of glucose and insulin in the body, which appears to
control eating behavior; the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
and the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Animals whose ventromedial
hypothalamus was damaged would no longer stop eating. It
appears that the signal of being full was no longer being received.
 The lateral hypothalamus seems to influence the onset of eating
when insulin levels go up. Damage to this area caused the
animals to stop eating to the point of starvation.
Weight Set Point and
Basal Metabolic Rate
 Researchers believe that the hypothalamus affects the particular
level of weight that the body tries to maintain, called
 The basal metabolic rate is the number of calories your body
burns at rest to maintain normal body more functions.
 Social Components of Hunger - Sometimes people eat from habit
than from need. And sometimes people eat when they are not
really hungry. Sometimes a persons eating habit is derived from
their culture, and maybe because they are depressed, or because
they are classically conditioned to eat at a certain time of the day,
e.g. 5pm is dinner.
Hunger and Eating
 Lateral hypothalamus is apart of the hypothalamus
involved in initiating , or turning on eating. Stimulating
the lateral hypothalamus causes a laboratory animal to
start eating even if it has just consumed a full meal. Or
if it is surgically removed, the animal will stop eating
and starve to death.
 Ventromedial hypothalamus, acts as an off-switch that
signals when it is time to stop eating. When this area is
destroyed, animals will overeat and eventually become
severely obese.
 Dopamine and endorphins, appear to be responsible
for the feelings of pleasure associated with eating.
Whereas, serotonin appears to play a role in regulating
our feelings of satiety, the sensations associated with
having had enough to eat.
Maladaptive Eating
 Obesity is a state of excess body fat; a condition in
which the body weight of a person is 20% or more over
the ideal body weight for that person’s weight. These
persons are at risk for developing life-threatening
diseases including heart disease, hypertension, severe
respiratory disorders, stroke, and diabetes.
It is believed that obesity is on the rise due to two main
factors: too many calories consumed and too little
 Factors that contribute to Obesity:
(1) Early behavioral dietary patterns, e.g., rewarded
with sweets;
(2) Environmental factors, e.g., TV commercials
displaying tempting foods;
(3) Emotional states, e.g., anger, fear, an depression
can prompt excessive eating.
(4) Genetics
(5) Leptin – is a protein that is secreted as a hormone
by the fatty tissues of the body. Leptin signals the
________________ that the body has had enough
food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of
being full, or satiated.
The Biology of Obesity
 Anorexia Nervosa – Is a form of
_______________ that results in an unhealthy and
potentially dangerously low body weight; a
condition in which a person reduces eating to the
point that a weight loss of 15% below the ideal
body weight or more occurs. It is characterized by
both an intense fear of becoming fat and a
distorted body image.
 Bulimia Nervosa – Is a disorder in which episodes
of binge eating are followed by purging.
 Eating disorders are far less common, even rare,
in non-Western countries.
The Three Elements of
 Emotions infuse our lives with color.
Researchers say that emotions are more than
just feelings; they have physiological (bodily
arousal/nervous system activation), cognitive
(subjective experience of the feeling, as well as
the thoughts or judgments we have about the
people or situations that evoke the feelings),
and behavioral components (outward
expression of the emotion).
Emotional Expression
 Cross-cultural studies show that people from many
different cultures can accurately identify six basic
emotions from facial expressions: anger, fear, disgust,
sadness, happiness, surprise, and contempt.
 Display rules are learned ways of controlling displays
of emotion in _____________________; it governs
cultural customs and norms that govern the display of
emotional expressions, e.g., Asian cultures tend to
frown on the public display of emotions.
Theories of Emotions
 The Common Sense Theory of Emotion states - a
stimulus leads to an emotion of fear, which then
leads to bodily arousal through the autonomic
nervous system.
 James-Lange Theory holds the belief that
emotions occur after people become aware of their
physiological responses to the triggering stimuli.
You run then you are fearful.
 Cannon-Bard Theory argues that emotional and
physiological reactions to triggering stimuli occur
almost simultaneously.
 Schachter-Singer (Cognitive Arousal Theory) States that experiencing fear involve both the
physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal
based on cues from the environment must occur
before the emotion is experienced.
Smile, You’ll Feel Better
 Facial-feedback hypothesis assumes that facial
expressions provide feedback to the brain
concerning the emotion being expressed,
which in turn causes and intensifies the
emotion in you; that mimicking facial
movements associated with a particular
emotion will produce the corresponding
emotional state.
 Lazarus’s Cognitive-Mediational Theory of
Emotion argues that a stimulus causes an
immediate appraisal. The cognitive appraisal
results in an emotional response, which is then
followed by the appropriate bodily response.
Positive Psychology
 Social Psychologist David G. Myers argues that
people should focus on their strengths, wellbeing, and the pursuit of happiness. He list 10
suggestions for becoming happier: 1) Realize
that enduring happiness doesn’t come from
success, 2) Take control of your time, 3) Act
happy, 4) Seek work and leisure activities that
engage your skills, 5) Join the “movement”
movement, 6) Give your body the sleep that it
wants, 7) Give priority to close relationships,
8) Focus beyond the self, 9) Keep a gratitude
journal, and 10) Nurture your spiritual self.
Positive Psychology
 Martin Seligman list a number of suggestion to help
people increase their personal happiness: 1) Gratitude
visits - do something for someone else; 2) Three
Blessings – every night, think of three things that went
well during the day and reflect on them. 3) Savoring –
Plan a perfect day and share it with someone.
 Happiness is not so much a function of what you’ve got
as what you make of it.
 The End
 Study

Ciccarelli Chapter 9 - Motivation and Emotion