Mengapa Strategi Gagal
Diterapkan?
Amin Wibowo
FEB UGM
Lima Elemen Utama Strategi
Dimana perusahaan akan aktif?
• Kategori produk?
• Segmen pasar?
• Area geografis?
• Teknologi?
• Tahap kreasi nilai?
Arena
Bagaimana kecepatan dan
tahapan eksekusi strategi?
•Kecepatan ekspansi?
•Tahapan inisiatif?
Bagaimana perusahaan akan
mendapatkan returns?
• Biaya lebih rendah melalui
keunggulan skala?
• Biaya lebih rendah melalui
keunggulan scope dan replikasi?
• Harga premium melalui
keunggulan kualitas produk?
• Harga premium melalui layanan
yang unik?
Staging
Economic
Logic
Vehicles
Differentiations
Bagaimana memenangkan
persaingan?
•Harga?
•Citra?
•Pelayanan terintegrasi?
•Customization?
•Kualitas produk?
2
Bagaimana pengembangan
akan dilakukan?
•Pengembangan internal?
•Aliansi strategik?
•Joint ventures?
•Licensing/franchising?
•Spin off?
Crafting vs. Executing Strategy
Crafting the Strategy
• Primarily a market-driven
activity
• Successful strategy making
depends on
– Business vision
– Perceptive analysis of
market conditions and
company capabilities
– Attracting and pleasing
customers
– Outcompeting rivals
– Using company capabilities
to forge a competitive
advantage
Executing the Strategy
• Primarily an operations-driven
activity
• Successful strategy execution
depends on
– Doing a good job of working
through others
– Good organization-building
– Building competitive
capabilities
– Creating a strategysupportive culture
– Getting things done and
delivering good results
Alat untuk membantu implementasi
strategi?
Strategy: the direction and scope of the company over the
long term. Strategy: the direction and scope of the
company over the long term.
Structure: the
basic the
organization
of the
company, its
Structure:
basic organization
of the
its departments,
reporting
lines, areasand
departments,company,
reporting
lines, areas
of expertise
of expertise and responsibility (and how they
responsibility
(and how they inter-relate).
inter-relate).
Systems:
formal
and informal
proceduresthat
that govern
Systems: formal
and
informal
procedures
govern everyday activity, covering everything
everyday activity,
covering everything from management
from management information systems,
information through
systems,
systems
to thethrough
systems attothethe
point
of contactat the point of
customer (retail
systems,
call center
contact withwith
thethe
customer
(retail
systems,
call center
systems, online systems, etc).
systems, online systems, etc).
THE SOFT S’s
Skills: the capabilities and competencies that exist within the
company. What it does best.
Shared values: the values and beliefs of the company.
Ultimately they guide employees towards 'valued' behavior.
Staff: the company's people resources and how the are
developed, trained and motivated.
Style: the leadership approach of top management and the
company's overall operating approach.
Key Performance Drivers (KPD’s)
dan Key Performance Outcomes KPO’s)
A Strategy Map
Organizational Culture Inventory
Satisfaction vs. Security Needs
Higher Order
Needs
Lower Order
Needs
Task vs. People Orientation
Task-Centered
People-Centered
OCI Ideal Culture Profile
H
O
W
C
U
L
T
U
R
E
Antecedents
Operating Culture
Lever for Changes
OCI Norms
Resources
Human
Financial
Knowledge
Underlying
Assumptions
Espoused
values
(ideal culture)
Philosophy
Mission
W
O
R
K
S
Goals
Strategies
Demands
Performance
Efficiency
Adaptation
Structures
Role
Influence
Decision-making
System
Training
Appraisal
Reinforcement
Goal-setting
Technology
Job design
Complexity
Interdependence
Skills/ Qualities
Leadership
Communication
Bases of power
Outcomes
Individual
Outcomes
Motivation
Performance
Staisfaction
Stress
Group
Outcomes
Teamwork
Inter-unit
coordination
Unit-level
quality
Organizational
Outcomes
Organizationallevel quality
Quality of
customer
service
External
adaptability
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Mengapa Strategi Banyak yang Gagal Diterapkan