TEORI GOVERNANCE
SEBUAH TINJAUAN AWAL
Governance as a Field of Study
Elemen Studi
 The Subject Matter
(Focus)
 Setting Kontekstual
Kemunculan
 Konten Material
 Dimensi
 The Locus
 Metodologi dan
Aksiologi
Jenis Teori
 Teori Deskriptif-
Eksplanatif
 Teori Normatif
 Teori Asumtif
 Teori Instrumental
 Governance theory helps to better frame an understanding
of how the processes of collective decision making fail or
succeed in our societies.
 The study of governance is focused not just on aiding a
better understanding of part of our world, but also has a
concern with how the functioning and operation of that
world could be made better.
 Governance theory is interested not just in offering
explanation, it also seeks to provide advice. It has the
character of being both concerned with ‘what is’ and ‘what
might be’.
 Governance scholars are interested in how governance
arrangements are chosen (intentionally or unintentionally),
how they are maintained or how they are changed
The Rise of Governance
Scientific
Validity
Science
Policy
Relevant
Respond to The
Changing Environment
The end of 20th
or the beginning
of 21th
Public
Administration
Scientific
Validity
 Economic (development)
Globalization
 The Spread of Democracy
 Inf-Knowledge Based Society
 Unsatisfactionary of NPM
Policy
Relevant
Use Gidden (2000) illustration as “The
Third Way”
Stoker (2009: 8) :
Contextual of The Rise of Governance
Something fundamental is happening to our economies and the umbrella
term ‘globalisation’ is a good one to capture what is going on. There
has been a strong trend towards a world of more rapid world-wide
communication, closer connections between peoples and organsations
and a greater sense of interconnectedness. Economies appear to be
more interconnected, patterns of migration have taken on powerful and
challenging directions, environmental pressures on the world’s
resources seem to be both more intertwined and more pressing than in
the past and the speed and pace of communication and the sharing of
ideas and practices throughout the world appears to be offering new
opportunities but also threats. We live in a world where there is a
significant further development towards a global market in which
patterns of production and consumption are organised by transnational
companies and other related organisations, operating across national
boundaries. Global finance markets and patterns of international trade
in turn influence the shape of national economies.
What Governance tells us???
 It describes changes in the nature and role of the
state—a shift from bureaucracy to markets and
networks.
 It also denotes a program for global reform
 Governance describe and theorize changes in
our world (This language has spread across
numerous disciplines, including political
science, economics, sociology, and public
administration)
 Governance also remakes our world
The key themes for the future of PA:
(Bovaird, 2001)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Governance, not just government—‘‘power to the
stakeholders’’
Stakeholder-based analysis, not just public sector
perspectives
Network analysis—public service and public interest
organizations that are joined up, not just stand-alone
Self-organizing within complex adaptive systems, not just
‘‘restructuring’’
Evidence-based policy and management—‘‘what matters is
what works’’ —not just performance measurement
Organizational learning and innovation, not just ‘‘reforms’’
User and community coproduction, not just professional
and political paternalism
Governance dapat dipandang sebagai :
(John Pierre dan B. Guy Peters, 2000).

Sebagai suatu sistem hirarki dalam struktur organisasi,
governance dimaknai sebagai perubahan hirarki yang
fleksibel dari pucuk pimpinan atas ke bawah.

Sebagai suatu sistem networking menunjuk pada suatu
titik dimana pelibatan semua elemen masyarakat
sangat dikedepankan dan munculnya jejaring
kebijakan.

Sebagai sistem pasar, governance lebih menekankan
terjadinya mekanisme kerjasama antar stakeholders
dalam memecahkan masalah bersama tanpa ada pihak
yang dirugikan dan peran pemerintah tidak
mendominasi.
Governance’s definitions
‘‘Governance’’ will be interpreted to mean the set of rules,
structures and procedures which give stakeholders some
power to influence the decisions which affect their welfare
(Bovaird and Loeffler, 2001)
Governance is about the rules of collective decision-making
in settings where there are a plurality of actors or
organisations and where no formal control system can
dictate the terms of the relationship between these actors
and organisations (Stoker, 2009)
 the way state power is used in managing economic
and social resources for development and
society.” (The World Bank)
 “the exercise of political, economic and
administrative authority to manage a nation’s
affair at all levels. It is the complex mechanisms,
process, relationships and institutions through
which citizens and groups articulate their
interests, exercise their rights and obligations and
mediate their differences” (UNDP,1997)
5 Proposisi penting dalam mewujudkan
Governance (Stoker, 1998) :
1.
2.
3.
Menunjuk pada seperangkat institusi dan aktor
yang berasal dari dalam maupun diluar birokrasi
pemerintah
Governance mengakui batas dan tanggungjawab
yang kabur dalam menangani masalah sosial
ekonomi
Governance mengenal adanya saling
ketergantungan di antara institusi2 yang
terlibat dalam tindakan bersama
Lanjutan :
4. Governance berkenaan dengan jaringan kerja
berbagai aktor yang mandiri dan otonom
5. Governance memahami kapasitas untuk
menyelesaikan semua masalah yang tidak
sepenuhnya tergantung kewenangannya, tetapi
governance percaya pemerintah mampu
menggunakan cara2 dan tehnik2 baru untuk
mengarahkan dan membimbing
Government dan Governance
Government (Stoker, 1998) menunjuk pada :
1.
2.
3.
4.
Institusi negara yang resmi
Monopoli kekuasaan pemaksa yang sah
Kemampuannya untuk membuat keputusan dan
kapasitas menegakkan pemberlakuaanya
Proses2
formal
dan
institusional
yang
berlangsung pada level negara nasional untuk
menjaga
ketertiban
masyarakat
dan
memfasilitasi tindakan bersama
Governance lebih menunjuk pada :
1.
2.
3.
4.
Perubahan makna pemerintah
Menunjuk pada proses memerintah yang baru
Kondisi tata cara memerintah yang berubah
Metode baru bagaimana masyarakat
diperintah
Government & Governance
Government
Governance
Pengertian
Berarti badan/
lembaga/fungsi yang
dijalankan oleh suatu organ
tertinggi dalam suatu negara
Dapat berarti cara, penggunaan atau
pelaksanaan
Sifat hubungan
Hierarkhis, dalam arti yang
memerintah berada di atas,
sedang WN yang diperintah
ada di bawah
Herarkhis, dalam arti ada
kesetaraan kedudukan dan hanya
berbeda dalam fungsi
Komponen yang
terlibat
Sebagai subyek hanya ada
satu institusi yaitu
pemerintahan
Ada tiga komponen yang terlibat :
state, privat dan society
Pemegang
peran dominan
Sektor pemerintah
Semua memegang peran sesuai
dengan fungsinya masing-masing
Efek yang
diharapkan
Kepatuhan warganegara
Partisipasi warganegara
Hasil akhir yang
diharapkan
Pencapaian tujuan negara
melalui kepatuhan
warganegara
Pencapaian tujuan negara dan
tujuan masyarakat melalui
partisipasi sebagai WN maupun
sebagai masyarakat
Perbandingan
PERBEDAAN PERSPEKTIF
NPM & GOVERNANCE
17





NPM = Corporate Values + Public Sector MNG
Gov = Public Need + Democracy
NPM = outcomes (the how much of results)
Gov = process (the how of policy)
NPM = Institutionalism & Public Choice (eco)
Gov = Relationship government + society (pol)
NPM = Replace bureau with corporate management
Gov = Retain government capacity to control
public sector resource
NPM = Market based cultural revolution
Gov = Cooperative arrangements with private sector
www.themegallery.com
OPA
WEBERIAN
VALUES
•
•
•
•
COMPETENCE
ETHICS
ACCOUNTABILITY
CAREER ORIENTED
IMPARTIAL
NPA
SOCIAL
CONCERN
• EQUITY
• EQUALITY
• JUSTICE
GOVERNANCE
NPM
BEST
MANAGERIAL
PRACTICE
• EFFICIENCY
• CONSUMER’S
SATISFACTION
• DEMOKRASI
• NETWORK
• STAKEHOLDERS
•
•
•
•
COLLABORATIVE
PARTICIPATORY
INCLUSIVE
TRANSPARANT
PARTIAL
Unibraw_2009
57
NPS dan Governance
 Democratic citizenship
 Model komunitas dan civil




society
Bertindak Demokratis dan
akuntabel
Deliberative and shared value
Serving not steering
Political participation and civic
engagement
 Power sharing and
democratic
 Collaborativeparticipatory process
 Corporate governance,
citizen/communitarian
governance
 NPS memiliki basis nilai yg sangat mirip dengan
governance
 Menunjuk pada varian model governance yg ada,
NPS cenderung mengarah pada apa yg disebut Box
(….) dengan Citizen Governance atau communitarian
governance, dan apa yang disebut Bovaird & Loffler
dengan Public Governance
 Demokrasi merupakan titik temu utama antara NPS
dan Governance
&
GOVERNANCE
DEMOKRASI
Dimensi Politik Governance :
 Interconectedness politik & dimensi governance lainnya
 Decision making context
 Kekuasaan dan distribusinya
 power over society
 power equal society
 society over power (governance paradigm)
 Proses asosiasi, artikulasi, dan kontestasi kepentingan
 Involving lembaga politik
 Tata hubungan, relasi, antar kelompok kepentingan atau
stakeholder
 Demokrasi sebagai nilai dasar governance
Demokrasi : Indikator Utama Politik
 Tumbuh-kembangnya political institution
 Government (‘s monopoly) failure
 Demokrasi sebagai agenda utama pembangunan dan
transformasi politik
 Kemajuan dan pertumbuhan ekonomi dipandang
berkaitan dengan demokrasi
 Penguatan entitas non-negara
Nilai Dasar & Indikator Demokrasi
 Perluasan ruang publik
 Transparansi
 Relasi antar aktor
 Akuntabilitas publik : eksternal-internal
 Citizenship
 Partisipasi
 Law and social equity and equality
 Rule of the game
Relasi Governance & Democracy
(Jon Pierre , 2000)
Ecoomic Dev
DEMOKRATISASI
GOVERNANCE
Five governance
Area
Institutionalism
Corpo. gov
NPM
Redefinisi Demokrasi
Network,
Partnership, &
Deliberative
Penjelasan : menurut Pierre, area ke 3, 4, dan 5 yang menjadikan pentingnya
demokrasi bagi governance
Relasi Governance & Demokrasi
Robert Dahl (1971) ‘a key characteristic of democracy is the
continuing responsiveness of the government to the
preferences of its citizens, considered as political equals’;
Menurut Dahl ada dua dimensi di dalam demokrasi, yaitu
public contestations dan the right to participate
David Beetham (1992) ‘a mode of decision-making about
collectively binding rules and policies over which the people
exercise control, and the most democratic arrangement to be
that where all members of the collectivity enjoy effective
equal rights to take part in such decision-making directly
Relasi Governance & Demokrasi
 Terletak pada nilai dasarnya
 Semua stakeholder adalah entitas politik
 Demokrasi adalah alasan sekaligus prasyarat
terwujudnya governance
 Multidimensi dan kompleksitas governance
menuntut perubahan konsep demokrasi
Representative dan Associative Democracy
Associative
Representative
 Through formally
 Formal and non formal






political institution
Formally political
mechanism
Limited political actors
Indirect political relation
Majority decision making
Legal and constitutional
approach
(Jon Pierre, 2000)



political institution
Formal and non formal
mechanism
Unlimited and extensive
political actors
(pluralistic)
Collaborative relation
Deliberate decision
making (dialogue or
discourse)
Deliberative Democracy
Demokrasi Liberal
Demokrasi Republikan
Demokrasi Deliberatif
 Demokrasi hanya sebaga penghubung aparat politikmasyarakat
 Negara hanya sebagai pelindung (pasif)
 Basis nilai kebebasan individu
 Tugas individu menyusun struktur pasar
 Basis nilai adalah peleburan individu dalam komunitas dan
suara mayoritas
 Negara dipandang sama dengan organisasi masyarakat
 Masalah untuk suara minoritas
Jurgen Habermas, (1989)
Deliberative Democracy
 Tidak berdasar kebebasan individu dan suara mayoritas
 Menekankan pada rasionalitas yang mumpuni dalam




proses memutuskan kebijakan, saling mengerti,
partisipan
Tidak bergantung pada aksi kolektif, tapi pada
terlembaganya keterhubungan prosedur komunikasi
Individu sebagai citizen yang diskursif
Diskursif secara inklusif dan menjadi kuasa paling utama
(kuasa komunikasi)
Consensus orientation
Proses-proses deliberatif juga disuarakan
Denhardt & Denhardt
Pasar dan Demokrasi
 Pasar bukan sekedar institusi ekonomi, tetapi juga





politik yang memiliki tanggung jawab demokrasi
Demokrasi pasar dijalankan dengan
“Exit-voice” theory
Kompetisi
a perfect market can produce perfect regulation
Demokrasi pasar melihat pilihan publik sebagai
agregasi kepentingan individual
GOVERNANCE & NETWORK:
GOVERNANCE AS NETWORK AND
GOVERNANCE OF THE NETWORK
Key Words:
 Non Hierarchical
 Negotiated Interaction
 Interorganizational relation
 Rooted : Political and Organization Theory
 Emperical Background : widespread of
fragmentation, complexity, dynamic
governance network as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
a relatively stable horizontal articulation of
interdependent, but operationally autonomous
actors;
who interact through negotiations;
which take place within a regulative, normative,
cognitive and imaginary framework;
that is self-regulating within limits set by external
agencies; and
which contributes to the production of public
purpose
 1. How can we explain the formation, functioning
and development of governance networks?
 2. What are the sources of governance network
failure and the conditions of success?
 3. How can inter alia public authorities regulate
self-regulating governance networks through
different kinds of metagovernance?
 4. What are the democratic problems and potentials
inherent to network governance?
INTERDEPENDENCY
interorganizational medium for interest mediation between interdependent, but
conflicting actors each of whom has a rule and resource base of their own
GOVERNMENTALITY
an attempt of an increasingly reflexive and facilitating state to mobilize and shape
the free actions of self-governing actors. Governance networks are construed as a
political response to the failure of neo-liberalism to realize its key goal of ‘less state
and more market’
INTEGRATION
as a relatively institutionalized field of interaction between relevant and affected
actors that are integrated in a community defined by common norms and
perceptions
GOVERNABILITY
a horizontal coordination between autonomous actors who interact in and through
different negotiation games
Stephen Osborne (NPG, 2010)