 Designing messages that effectively reaches the
target audience.
 Designed to change or shape attitudes.
 Must be remembered.
 Should lead to some kind of short or long term
Message Strategies
 3 broad categories of message strategies:
 Cognitive
 Affective
 Conative
Cognitive Strategies
 Presentation of rational arguments or pieces of information to
 The advertiser’s key message is about the product’s attributes or
 5 major forms of cognitive strategies:
Generic messages
Preemptive messages
Unique Selling Proposition
Comparative Advertisements
Cognitive Strategies
 Generic Messages –
 Direct promotions of product attributes or benefits without any claim
of superiority.
 Work best for the brand leaders
 Example: Campbell’s Soup – Soup is good food
 Preemptive Messages –
 Claim superiority based on a product’s specific attribute or benefit.
 Idea is to present the competition from making thee same or a similar
 Example: Crest – the cavity fighter
Cognitive Strategies
 USP –
 A clear, testable claim of uniqueness or superiority that
can be supported or verified.
 Example: Dove – 25% moisturizer.
Cognitive Strategies
 Hyperbole –
 This makes an untestable claim based upon some attribute or
 Eg. NTV is promoting ‘Bangladeshi’s favorite color GREEN’
 Comparative Advertisement –
 When an advertiser directly or indirectly compares a good or
service to the competition.
 All five of these cognitive message strategies are based on
some type of rational logic
 Ensure consumer pay attention and take time to cognitively
process the information
 Informing people about the product
Affective Strategies
 Feelings or emotions and match those feelings with the good,
service, or company.
 Prepared to enhance the likeability of the product
 Recall of the appeal
Affective strategies are a common approach to developing a
strong brand name.
Affective Strategies
 The two main forms are:
 Resonance advertising
 Emotional advertising
Affective Strategies
 Resonance Advertising
 Connect product with a consumer’s experience to stronger ties
between the product and the consumer
 Emotional Advertising
 Elicit powerful emotions that eventually lead to product recall and
 Many emotions can be connected to products, including trust,
reliability, friendship, happiness, security, romance, passion etc.
Remember about Affective Strategies
 Good for developing a strong brand name
 Do not make decision based solely on rational thought
 Emotions and feelings also affect decisions
Conative Strategies
 Designed to lead more directly to some type of consumer
 Can be used to support other promotional efforts, such as coupon
redemption programs, in-store offers like buy-one-get-one-free.
 The 2 main forms are:
 Action inducing (suggesting)
 Promotional support
Hierarchy of Effects Model
Hierarchy of
Effects Model
Proof of the claim
Action to take
Executional Frameworks
Executional Framework
 An executional framework is the manner in which an ad appeal is
 It is chosen after an advertising appeal has been selected
 Has seen a lot of development in
recent years.
 Rotoscoping
 Clay animation
 Here, advertisers try to provide solutions to the everyday
problems customers and businesses face.
 P&G came up with the format back in the 1950s.
 A common slice-of-life format has 4 stages:
 Encounter
 Problem
 Interaction
 Solution
( Banglalink add – dinbodol)
 It is similar to the slice-of-life framework.
 However, the intensity of the situation is heightened in this
 Make it Big
 Especially successful in the B2B and services marketing sectors.
 Customer is presented in an ad talking about a positive experience
with a product.
 It is an effective method for promoting services.
 Testimonials enhance company credibility. In such ads, it is the
everyday people, often actual customers are the main characters –
they are found to be more credible than endorsers and famous
 Example: BTI – our clients speak for us campaign
 The advertiser tries to convince viewers that a given
product is superior to other brands.
 Expert authority – dentists, physician, engineer, or
chemist talks about the brand’s advantages compared
to other brands.
 Example: Colgate
 May include scientific or survey evidence.
 It shows how a product works.
 Effective way to communicate the attributes of a
product to viewers.
 Well-suited to television and internet flash
 It is difficult to portray it in other media like
 Demonstrations have been found to be effective
for B2B marketing
 Such executions are designed to lift the
audience beyond the real world to a
make-believe experience.
 Most common fantasy themes still involve
sex, love and romance.
 Fantasy is widely used for fragrances and
other fashion items.
 Example: AXE
 Here, information is presented to the audience in a
straightforward manner.
 Seen commonly in RDCs, rather than in TVC or print – where
consumers tend to ignore them.
 Consumers who are highly involved in a particular product
category pay attention to such ads.
 Such ads thus tend to work best for high-involvement situations.
Sources and Spokesperson
Sources and Spokespersons
 Selecting the right source and spokesperson to use in an
advertisement is a critical decision.
 4 types of sources are available to advertisers:
 Celebrities – Nokia with Tamim Iqbal
 CEOs
 Experts – Sunsilk/Persona with Habib, doctors for colgate
 Typical persons
Source Characteristics
Matching Source Types and
 Amitabh Bachchan
 Sachin Tendulkar
 If there is a match between the product and celebrity,
the virtue of such an endorsement increases.
 Problems
 Brand ambassadors bringing disgrace to the brand
 Celebrities endorsing too many products – they lose credibility
 People know that the celebrities are paid – they lose credibility
Creating an Advertisement
Effective Advertising – Key Points
 An effective ad requires the joint efforts of the
account exec, creative, media planner, and media
 If the ad can break through the clutter – half
the battle is won.
Key points to keep in mind are:
 Visual consistency
 Campaign duration
 Repeated taglines
 Consistent positioning – avoid ambiguity (doubt)
 Simplicity
 Identifiable selling point
 Create an effective flow
Beating Ad Clutter
 Repetition – it can lead to better brand and
ad recall.
 Variability theory
 Suggests that variable encoding occurs when a
consumers sees the same advertisement in
different environments. These varied
environments increase an ad’s recall and
effectiveness by encoding it into the brain
through various methods.
 Creatives can generate the effect by varying the
situational context of a particular ad.
 Example: Mastercard ads or Zoo Zoo