Introduction Designing messages that effectively reaches the target audience. Designed to change or shape attitudes. Must be remembered. Should lead to some kind of short or long term action. ? Message Strategies 3 broad categories of message strategies: Cognitive Affective Conative Cognitive Strategies Presentation of rational arguments or pieces of information to consumers. The advertiser’s key message is about the product’s attributes or benefits. 5 major forms of cognitive strategies: Generic messages Preemptive messages Unique Selling Proposition Hyperbole Comparative Advertisements Cognitive Strategies Generic Messages – Direct promotions of product attributes or benefits without any claim of superiority. Work best for the brand leaders Example: Campbell’s Soup – Soup is good food Preemptive Messages – Claim superiority based on a product’s specific attribute or benefit. Idea is to present the competition from making thee same or a similar statement. Example: Crest – the cavity fighter Cognitive Strategies USP – A clear, testable claim of uniqueness or superiority that can be supported or verified. Example: Dove – 25% moisturizer. Cognitive Strategies Hyperbole – This makes an untestable claim based upon some attribute or benefits. Eg. NTV is promoting ‘Bangladeshi’s favorite color GREEN’ Comparative Advertisement – When an advertiser directly or indirectly compares a good or service to the competition. Remember All five of these cognitive message strategies are based on some type of rational logic Ensure consumer pay attention and take time to cognitively process the information Informing people about the product Affective Strategies Feelings or emotions and match those feelings with the good, service, or company. Prepared to enhance the likeability of the product Recall of the appeal Affective strategies are a common approach to developing a strong brand name. Affective Strategies The two main forms are: Resonance advertising Emotional advertising Affective Strategies Resonance Advertising Connect product with a consumer’s experience to stronger ties between the product and the consumer Emotional Advertising Elicit powerful emotions that eventually lead to product recall and choice Many emotions can be connected to products, including trust, reliability, friendship, happiness, security, romance, passion etc. Remember about Affective Strategies Good for developing a strong brand name Do not make decision based solely on rational thought process Emotions and feelings also affect decisions Conative Strategies Designed to lead more directly to some type of consumer response. Can be used to support other promotional efforts, such as coupon redemption programs, in-store offers like buy-one-get-one-free. The 2 main forms are: Action inducing (suggesting) Promotional support Hierarchy of Effects Model Message Strategies Hierarchy of Effects Model Advertising Components Headline Sub-headline Amplification Proof of the claim Action to take Executional Frameworks Executional Framework An executional framework is the manner in which an ad appeal is presented. It is chosen after an advertising appeal has been selected Animation Slice-of-life Dramatization Testimonial Authoritative Demonstration Fantasy Informative Animation Has seen a lot of development in recent years. Rotoscoping Clay animation Slice-of-Life Here, advertisers try to provide solutions to the everyday problems customers and businesses face. P&G came up with the format back in the 1950s. A common slice-of-life format has 4 stages: Encounter Problem Interaction Solution ( Banglalink add – dinbodol) Dramatization It is similar to the slice-of-life framework. However, the intensity of the situation is heightened in this framework. Make it Big Testimonials Especially successful in the B2B and services marketing sectors. Customer is presented in an ad talking about a positive experience with a product. It is an effective method for promoting services. Testimonials enhance company credibility. In such ads, it is the everyday people, often actual customers are the main characters – they are found to be more credible than endorsers and famous individuals. Example: BTI – our clients speak for us campaign Authoritative The advertiser tries to convince viewers that a given product is superior to other brands. Expert authority – dentists, physician, engineer, or chemist talks about the brand’s advantages compared to other brands. Example: Colgate May include scientific or survey evidence. Demonstration It shows how a product works. Effective way to communicate the attributes of a product to viewers. Well-suited to television and internet flash It is difficult to portray it in other media like print. Demonstrations have been found to be effective for B2B marketing Fantasy Such executions are designed to lift the audience beyond the real world to a make-believe experience. Most common fantasy themes still involve sex, love and romance. Fantasy is widely used for fragrances and other fashion items. Example: AXE Informative Here, information is presented to the audience in a straightforward manner. Seen commonly in RDCs, rather than in TVC or print – where consumers tend to ignore them. Consumers who are highly involved in a particular product category pay attention to such ads. Such ads thus tend to work best for high-involvement situations. Sources and Spokesperson Sources and Spokespersons Selecting the right source and spokesperson to use in an advertisement is a critical decision. 4 types of sources are available to advertisers: Celebrities – Nokia with Tamim Iqbal CEOs Experts – Sunsilk/Persona with Habib, doctors for colgate Typical persons Source Characteristics Matching Source Types and Characteristics Amitabh Bachchan Sachin Tendulkar If there is a match between the product and celebrity, the virtue of such an endorsement increases. Problems Brand ambassadors bringing disgrace to the brand Celebrities endorsing too many products – they lose credibility People know that the celebrities are paid – they lose credibility Creating an Advertisement Effective Advertising – Key Points An effective ad requires the joint efforts of the account exec, creative, media planner, and media buyer. If the ad can break through the clutter – half the battle is won. Key points to keep in mind are: Visual consistency Campaign duration Repeated taglines Consistent positioning – avoid ambiguity (doubt) Simplicity Identifiable selling point Create an effective flow Beating Ad Clutter Repetition – it can lead to better brand and ad recall. Variability theory Suggests that variable encoding occurs when a consumers sees the same advertisement in different environments. These varied environments increase an ad’s recall and effectiveness by encoding it into the brain through various methods. Creatives can generate the effect by varying the situational context of a particular ad. Example: Mastercard ads or Zoo Zoo Questions?