BlazeSports Institute for
Applied Science
CDSS Level II Curriculum
1
Headstrong: Sport Psychology
and Mental Skills Training
2
Objectives
• Review the origins and development of sport
psychology and mental skills training from
inception to present.
• Dispel myths associated with sport
psychology and mental skills training.
• Define sport psychology, mental skills training
and clinical versus educational sport
psychologist.
3
Objectives
• Understand the objectives of sport psychology
and mental skills training.
• Define various methods and skill within sport
psychology and mental skills training.
• Understand the role of sport psychology and
mental skills training within a holistic training
program.
4
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 1 – The Early Years
• 1895 – 1920
• Norman Triplett
5
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 2 – The Griffith Era
• 1921 – 1938
• First Academic Sports Psychology
Laboratory at the University of Illinois
Urbana-Champaign
• Psychology of Coaching
• Psychology of Athletics
6
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 3 – Preparation for the Future
• 1939 – 1969
• Franklin Henry
• 1938:
• 1965:
Establishes graduate program in
Psychology of Physical Activity
First World Congress of Sport Psychology
7
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 4 – Establishment of Academic
Sport Psychology
• 1966 – 1977
• Bruce Ogilvie
• Applied Sport Psychology Consultants
• First Annual NASPSPA Conference
8
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 5 – Multidisciplinary Science and
Practice in Sport and Exercise Psychology
• 1978 – 2000
• Global Growth
• Applied Issues
• Qualitative Studies
• Exercise Psychology
9
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 5 – Multidisciplinary Science and Practice in
Sport and Exercise Psychology
• 1978 – 2000
• 1979:
Journal of Sport Psychology Established
• 1985:
USOC hires first full-time sports psychologist
• 1986:
American Association of Applied Sport
Psychologists (AAASP)
10
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 5 – Multidisciplinary Science and Practice in
Sport and Exercise Psychology
• 1978 – 2000
• 1987:
APA Division 47 Developed
• 1989:
Journal of Applied Sport Psychology
• 1991:
AAASP establishes “certified consultant”
designation
11
History
• Periods of Development
• Period 6 – Contemporary Sport and
Exercise Psychology
• 2001 – Present
• Training and Educating Students
• Exercise Psychology Flourishes
• APA Div. 47 – Sport Psychology as a
Specialized Competency Area
12
PST Vs MST
•
Psychological (PST) Vs. Mental
Skills Training (MST)
• Used interchangeably
• Possible negative connotation with PST
• Use of term Mental Skills Training can
eliminate negative perceptions
• Opens door to larger client pool
13
Myths
•
Psychological Skills Training (PST)
is for “problem” athletes only.
•
PST is for elite training only.
•
PST provides “quick fix” solutions.
•
PST is not useful.
14
What is Sport Psychology?
•
The scientific study of people and
their behaviors in sport and the
practical application of that
knowledge.
15
What is the objective of Sport
Psychologists?
• Two Objectives
• Understand the effects of psychological
factors on physical or motor performance.
• How does anxiety affect free throw shooting?
• Understand the effects of physical activity
participation on psychological
development, health and well being.
• Does running reduce anxiety and depression?
16
What is the objective of Sport
Psychologists?
• Why?
•
To understand and help
• Who?
•
Elite athletes, children, persons who are
physically or mentally disabled, seniors
and average participants
• What?
•
Achieve maximum participation, peak
performance, personal satisfaction, and
development through participation.
17
What is the objective of Sport
Psychologists?
• How?
•
Three Roles
•
•
•
•
Teaching
Consulting
Research
Two Specialties
•
•
Clinical Sport Psychologist
• Treat clients with emotional disorders
Educational Sport Psychologist
• Mental Coaches
18
What is Mental Skills Training?
• Systematic and consistent practice of
mental skills for the purpose of
enhancing performance, increasing
enjoyment, or achieving greater sport
and physical activity self-satisfaction.
19
What is the Objective of Mental
Skills Training?
• To assist sport participants in the
development of mental skills to
achieve performance success and
personal well-being.
• To have athletes effectively function on
their own without needing constant
direction from a coach or sport
psychologist.
20
Why is MST Important?
“Baseball is ninety percent mental. The
other half is physical.”
-Yogi Berra, Hall of Fame Catcher
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Why is MST Important?
• Mental Toughness
•
•
•
•
•
Focus
Rebound from failure
Cope with pressure
Persist
Realize internal locus of control
22
Why is MST Neglected?
• Three Basic Reasons
•
Lack of Knowledge
•
Misunderstanding About Mental Skills
•
Lack of Time
23
Skills Vs. Methods
• Skills
•
Qualities to be obtained
• Methods
•
Procedures or techniques used to
develop skills
24
MST Methods
• Arousal Regulation
• Imagery
• Goal Setting
• Attention/Concentration
25
Skill Categories
• Foundation
•
•
•
•
Achievement Drive
Self-Awareness
Productive Thinking
Self-Confidence
• Performance
• Perceptual-Cognitive Skill
• Attentional Focus
• Energy Management
26
Skill Categories
• Personal Development
• Identity Achievement
• Interpersonal Competence
• Team
•
•
•
•
Leadership
Communication
Cohesion
Team Confidence
27
Summary
• Sport Psychology since 1895
• Myths
• Clinical Vs. Educational Sport Psychologist
• Definitions & Objectives
• Methods and Skills
• Holistic Training Program
28
Resources
Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2007).
Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology
(4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Williams, J. M. (Ed.). (2006). Applied Sport
Psychology: Personal Growth to Peak
Performance (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGrawHill.
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Questions??
30
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