O.A.Moronkola PhD
Health Education Unit, Dept. Of Human Kinetics
&Health Education, University Of Ibadan
Email: [email protected]
It is a known fact that x-raying contextual
issues are important in analysing human
phenomenon or problem. In this review paper,
various determinants of health like income,
education, physical environment, social
support network, genetics and health services
are highlighted and strategies needed in
prevention and treatment against prostate
cancer in Nigeria are discussed.
.Men’s health are less discussed or given attention in most spheres of life
despite the fact that they are prone to many health problems due to
unhealthy behaviour or causes like tobacco use, alcohol consumption,
poor diet consumption, over speeding, late or irregular health care
seeking or poor utilization of health facility, risk taking, denial of ill
health conditions, unemployment, underemployment and stress.
.Since they also fail to utilize health care services unless mostly at critical
times, they are less provided for in many health care systems as women
and children for obvious reasons since most reproductive health burden
are on women.
.Looking at the role of men in health programmes ,services research,
planning and delivery generally and for women specifically as well as a
key factor surrounding decision making on reproductive issues
concerning women in and at home front especially in developing
countries the health of men also needs serious attention by relevant stake
holders. Cancer is a public health problem of great importance in Africa
with great challenge in confronting it.
Prostate cancer continues to be the most significant
cancer common among men of African descent .
.It is a major public health problem in developing
countries .
.It requires ,global effort and collaborations
among relevant stakeholders like prostate cancer
scientists, clinicians, survivors and advocates for
better understanding of the etiology of prostate
cancer among at-risk black men, and develop
effective interventions to address these disparities
[1]
.Risk factors for prostate cancer are age, family
history of prostate cancer and African ancestry and
it is this last factor that risk factor that makes
prostate cancer an urgent chronic disease needing
attention in Africa.
. Other risk factors of prostate cancer are diet high
in processed meat, dairy foods, and obesity [3]
. Based on literature review there is a three-fold
higher mortality rate for prostate cancer among
patients in African countries when compared to
patients in the United States and Europe which
has been partly attributed to socio-economic
factors , inadequate access to healthcare and
differences in genetic susceptibility [4].
.Prevalence of prostatic diseases is reportedly high
in Nigeria and presentation at health facility is
usually late in some cases, the prevalence is
comparable to figures from industrialised
countries.
. This situation is compounded as the research and
policy responses in Nigeria are regrettably
inadequate and there is a limited appreciation of
recent trends in prostatic diseases which may be
partly responsible for this situation.
Healthcare budgetary allocations is meager yearly,
it is pertinent to develop a properly thought-out
plan for the prevention and management of
prostatic diseases in Nigeria [5, 6, 7, 8]
i. Income
ii. Education
iii. Environment
iv. Social support network
v. Genetics
vii. Health care services
viii. Lifestyle
i. Improvement in education of boys and men through formal and
non-formal education
ii . Making the environment safe and specifically pollutants free
iii. Strengthening prostate cancer registration
iv. Capacity building of health workers in the area of oncology
v. Scaling up of school and community health education against
cancer and health risk behaviours.
vi Vigorous prostate cancer advocacy using bottom up approach.
vii. Capacity building and favourable research environment for
prostate cancer scientist with particular emphasis on
pharmaceutical products, genetics and ethics.
viii. Training of health workers at all levels in the area of prevention,
management of prostate cancer and attitude to patients, their
friends and family members.
1.Odedina , F.T, Shavers, V.L, Segal, R, Pressey , S [2011] Proceedings of the First Biennial
Conference on Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men Infectious Agents
and Cancer 6(Supple 2):I1 http://www.infectagentscancer.com/supplements/6/S2
2. Geddes and Grosset [2002] .Sexual health New Lanark: Author
3.Boyle, P and Levin,B.[Eds].2008]World Cancer Report 2008 Lyon Cedex: International Agency for
Research on Cancer
4. African Union [2013] The Impact of Non-Communicable Diseases[NCDs] and Neglected Tropical
Diseases[NTDSs] on Development in Africa Report of AU Conference of Ministers of Health
Sixth Ordinary Session 22-26April,Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
5. Ogunbiyi , J.O and Shittu, O.B [1999] Increased incidence of prostate cancer in Nigerians
Journal of National Medical Association 91(3): 159–164. PMCID: PMC2608450
6.Ukoli F, Osime U, Akereyeni F, Okunzuwa O, Kittles R, Adams-Campbell L [2003] Prevalence of
elevated serum prostate-specific antigen in rural Nigeria International Journal of Urology
10(6):315-22.
7 .Ejike , C [2011]Towards the Prevention and Management of Prostatic Diseases in Nigeria: A
Framework Malaysian Journal Medical Science Jul-Sep; 18(3): 65–70.
8.Ogunmola AO, Shittu OB, Olapade- Olaopa EO [2013] Cutaneous metastasis from prostate cancer
in a nigerian : a case report and literature review African Journal Med Medical Science.
42(3):283-6.
9.Prabhakara,G.N.[2003]Short textbook of preventive and social medicine New Delhi :Jaypee
Brothers
10.Ogden,J [2000]. Health psychology Buckingham:
11.Graham, A.L, and Abrams, D.B [2005]Reducing the Cancer Burden of Lifestyle Factors:
Opportunities and Challenges of the InternetJournal of Medical Internet Research 7(3):e26
URL:http://www.jmir.org/2005/3/e26/doi: 10.2196/jmir.7.3.e26 PMID:
159986177(3):e26URL:http://www.jmir.org/2005/3/e26/doi: 10.2196/jmir.7.3.e26 PMID:
15998617




