DECEMBER 6 & 7, 2012
Dr. E M Abdulmumin, Ph.D.
Licensed Clinical Psychologist
The DuBois Institute, Riverside, CA
Building Resilience in African American Families
[email protected]/(951) 686-9930
Hipple describes the general process of African
coming-of-age rituals. The first process involves
a removal of individuals from their community.
Then, a period of transition occurs, in which
individuals learn the skills and tasks for their
future community roles. Last, individuals are
brought back to the community marked by a
celebration. At this point, individuals are
considered to have transitioned from youths to
adults and actively participate in appropriate
ways recognized by the community. Thus, this is
a point where individuals transform their lives,
and may also be marked by individuals being
given a new name due to their status, and
presented to the community as a different
person (Hipple, 2008).
Afrocentric social workers their
view, the African ethos, as
transmuted into African
American culture, has been
and is central to African
Americans' ability to survive
racist oppression. .
In Afrocentric practice,
treatment — conceived of as
healing — takes place within
and through positive,
rewarding connections with
African and African American
culture and with other people
of African descent. “
African Worldview
Afrocentrism is predicated on
traditional African philosophy that
predates European and Arab
influences (Schiele, 1994). Two
core elements are spirituality
(Pinkett, 1993) and
interconnectedness (Myers,
. Individuals are encouraged to prize the
African and African American values of
equality, cooperation, reconciliation,
respect, and sharing. Connectedness is
nurtured through groups. Recognizing that
the effects of indirect power blocks are not
easily vanquished, Afrocentric practitioners
intervene over a sufficient duration to
permit internalization of a positive sense of
self, of other African Americans, and of
African and African American heritage. The
aim is respect of self, family, and
The health consequences for
African American male teenagers of
living in high-risk environments are
devastating. Given the existence of
cultural barriers to health services
use, culturally proficient programs
that can engage African American
male youths in preventive
interventions and primary care are
urgently needed.
African American youth and social problems
Academic Failure
Social/Behavioral: Conduct Disorder Features
Substance Abuse, absent fathers
Disparities in Health, Mental Health and Justice
Cradle to Prison: Malcolm the Ghetto is a prison;
Angela Davis: the PIC is the new slave system
2 million in US prisons, 1 million are African Am
A culturally competent system of care
"acknowledges and incorporates — at all
levels — the importance of culture, the
assessment of cross-cultural relations,
vigilance toward the dynamics that
result from cultural differences, the
expansion of cultural knowledge, and
the adaptation of services to meet
culturally-unique needs" (Cross et al.,
1989, p. 17).
Basic cultural competence occurs when
organizations and practitioners respect
difference; engage in ongoing cultural selfassessment; expand their cultural
knowledge and skills; and adapt services to
fit the community's culture, situation, and
perceived needs. With cultural proficiency,
the group's culture is esteemed and new
approaches are developed on the basis of
deep cultural knowledge. (Harvey, )
• Cultural competence in mental health
• Cultural competence in diverse settings
• Cultural competence in an Africancentric
• Cultural competence in an Africancentric
Evidence Based Rites of Passage Program
Ma'at, an ancient Egyptian word,
means an ethical way of life (Karenga,
1990). The goal of the MAAT
Program is empowerment of black
male adolescents through a ninemonth rites of passage program..
Dr. Harvey’s Model:
• Cultural Competence Orientation
• Empowerment
• Afrocentric Social Work Perspective
• African World View
Following the first weekly class and
subsequent weekly meetings, students
present their names ritually to the whole
group, and provide the origin of their
African names and its meanings. Beyond
this Naming Ritual, other rituals are
employed such as: (a) African dress of the
teachers, (b) African names of the teacher,
(e) the Opening and Physical Exercise ritual,
(f) demonstrating African Leadership Rituals,
and (g) the Africentric Closing
8 Week Curriculum
Week 1
Week 2
Introduction to Major Principles (Nguzo
Saba, RIPSO)
Week 3
Nguzo Saba, Virtues of Maat
Week 4
Week 5
Week 6
Ancient African Civilization
Week 7
Black Contributions to American Society
Week 8
Nutrition and Food
One module each week
• Day one Introduction to topic
• Day two speaker
• Day three create a product via
arts, crafts, role play, field trip,
Daily Schedule
• Snack
• Home if arrive early
• Research of African American for
presentation in Libation Circle
• Libation Circle
• Recitation of Nzugo Saba, Virtue of Maat,
and Class Creed
• Make take a break
• Lecture and discussion or speaker,
Product or fieldtrip
• Break
• Closing Circle
• Dinner meal
Nguzo Saba
10 Virtues of MAAT
Control of thoughts.
Control of actions.
Devotion of purpose.
Have faith in the ability of your teacher to teach you
the truth.
5. Have faith in yourself to assimilate the truth.
6. Have faith in themselves to wield the truth.
7. Be free from resentment under the experience of
8. Be free from resentment under the experience of
9. Cultivate the ability to distinguish between right and
10. Cultivate the ability to distinguish between the real and
the unreal.
RIPSO Principles
7 Rs:
Responsibility, Reciprocity, Respect,
Restraint, Reason, Reconciliation, Realness
3 Is:
Interconnectedness, Interdependence,
3 Ps:
Participation, Patience, Perseverance
3 Ss:
Sharing, Sacrifice, Spirituality
Cooperation, Discipline, Unconditional Love
The DuBois Institutes Class Creed
We believe.
We are the young men of the Rites of Passage Program.
We are college bound.
We are exceptional-not because we say it, but because we work hard at it.
We will not falter in the face of any obstacle placed before us.
We are dedicated, committed and focused.
We never succumb to mediocrity, uncertainty or fear.
We never fail because we never give up.
We make no excuses.
We choose to live honestly, nonviolently and honorably.
We respect ourselves and, in doing so, respect all people.
We have a future for which we are accountable.
We have a responsibility to our families, community and world.
We are our brothers' keepers.
We believe in ourselves.
We believe in each other.
We believe in the Rites of Passage Program.
Conceptual Framework
Black Feminist Theory
Black Family Theory
Afrocentric Theory
Afterschool format
The results of this study indicated a positive impact of the
Rites of Passage program on Black adolescent ethnic
identity, attitudes towards school, behavior in the
classroom and attitudes towards substance use.
Specifically, there was positive, statistically significant data
on the outcome of the measures for the intervention
group in the domains of attitudes towards substance
abuse and behavior in the classroom.
When anyone reflects on ancient
Egypt today, the Great Pyramid of
Cheops and its staggering
dimensions invariably are brought
to mind: It stands 481 ft. high and
contains 2 million blocks of
yellowish limestone. Each block
weights 2.5 tons, was quarried
miles away, floated on barges, and
dragged from the shores of the
Nile to its present site.
Truth and Justice, a moral standard
between right and wrong
Understanding Maat
• The role of Pharoah was to maintain Maat
• As a diety, Maat was personified as a goddess
• No wrong to his fellow men and helped those
more unfortunate, the deceased is declared
maa kheru, “true of voice”
Great Pyramid of Khufu
• Near-perfect alignment to the points of the
• A ground area of 13.1 acres. It is composed of 2.3
million limestone blocks averaging 2.5 tons each.
• Advanced knowledge of astronomy. The
pyramid’s shadow disappears completely at the
spring equinox.
• The ancient Egyptians understood physics 1500
years before the ancient Greeks
– The distance from the earth to the sun when its height
in inches was multiplied by 109 ; 109 being the
proportion of height to width of the pyramid.
Sciences, Math, Astrology
(1619 - )
The word Maafa is derived from the
Swahili term for disaster, terrible
occurrence or great tragedy.
The Maafa refers to the 500 years of
suffering of African and the African
diaspora, through slavery,
imperialism, colonialism, invasion,
oppression, dehumanization and
exploitation. The term also refers to
the social and legal policies that were
used to invalidate or take credit for
the contributions of African peoples
to humanity as a whole, and the after
effect of this persecution, as seen in
modern times.
Sankofa can mean either the word in the
Akan language of Ghana that translates
in English to "go back and get it" (san - to
return; ko - to go; fa - to look, to seek and
take) or the Asante Adinkra symbols of a
bird with its head turned backwards
taking an egg off its back, or of a stylised
heart shape. It is often associated with
the proverb, “Se wo were fi na
wosankofa a yenkyi," which translates "It
is not wrong to go back for that which
you have forgotten. Or the saying “Give
me the Old Time Religion”
Exercise and Discussion on
Evidenced Based Interventions
and do they increase or decrease
the implementation of cultural
cultural competency, delivery of
services or treatment, in an
Africancentric Rites of Passage
Break into groups and report back
3 of each and rationale

Africancentric Rites of Passage, Cultural Competency and PEI