1-1
Organizational Behavior
BUS-542
Instructor: Erlan Bakiev, Ph.D.
11-2
Essentials of
Organizational Behavior, 11/e
Stephen P. Robbins & Timothy A. Judge
Chapter 11
Leadership
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
11-3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Define the leadership and contrast leadership and
management.
Summarize the conclusions of trait theories of leadership.
Assess contingency theories of leadership by their level of
support.
Compare and contrast charismatic leadership, transformational
leadership, and authentic leadership.
Address challenges to the effectiveness of leadership.
Assess whether charismatic and transformational leadership
generalize across cultures.
Leadership vs. Management
11-4
Leadership


About coping with
change.
Establishes direction with
a vision.
Management




Aligns resources and
inspires workers to
complete the vision and
overcome hurdles.
About coping with
complexity (Kotter, 1990)
Brings about order and
consistency
Draws up plans, structures,
and monitors results.
Traditional Theories of Leadership: Trait Theories
11-5
Trait theory focuses on personal qualities and
characteristics

Big Five Personality Framework

Extraversion has strongest relation to leadership (Judge et al., 2002,

Conscientiousness and Openness to Experience also strongly related
to leadership

Agreeableness and Emotional Stability are not correlated with
leadership

Emotional Intelligence is correlated with leadership, however, this
link is under-investigated (Goleman, 2004)
Traditional Theories of Leadership: Behavioral Theories
11-6
Behaviors can be taught – traits cannot
Leaders are trained – not born
Behavioral Theories: Ohio State Studies
(Schriesheim et al., 1995; Judge et al., 2004)
11-7
Developed two categories of
leadership behavior:
Initiating
Structure
Attempts to organize work,
work relationships, and goals
Consideration
Concern for followers’
comfort, well-being, status,
and satisfaction
Behavioral Theories: University of Michigan Studies
11-8
Developed two dimensions of
leadership behavior:
Production
Oriented
Emphasize the technical or
task aspects of the job:
people are means to an end
Employee
Oriented
Emphasize interpersonal
relations and accept
individual differences
Contingency Theories
11-9
Attempts to match leadership style
with work context as one leadership
style does not work in every situation.


Fiedler Model (LPC)(Feiedler,
1967)
Leader-Member Exchange
(LMX) Theory (Stilwell, 1993;
Masterson et al., 2000)
Fiedler Leadership Model
1110
This model proposes that effective group performance
depends on the proper match between the leader’s style
and the degree to which the situation gives the leader
control.
Identifying Leadership Style: Least-Preferred Co-worker
(LPC) determines leadership style (fixed trait)

Relationship oriented

Task oriented
Match leader’s style with degree of situational control:

Leader-member relations

Task structure

Position power
Fiedler Model: Matching Leaders to Situations
1111
Either change leaders or the situation to improve effectiveness
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
1112

Leaders treat followers differently

In-group members:
 Close
to leader in attitude or personality
 Have
more of the leader’s attention
 Get
special privileges
 Have
 Lower
higher performance ratings
turnover
 Greater
satisfaction
Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model
1113
While the leader does the choosing, it is the
followers’ characteristics that drive the decision
Charismatic Leadership
1114
Attributions of heroic
leadership abilities when
followers observe certain
behaviors:

Vision

Personal Risk-taking

Sensitivity toward Followers

Extraordinary Behaviors
(Conger and Kanungo, 1998)
Charismatic Leaders: Born or Made?
1115
Charisma is partially attributed to genetics and
partially to training and experience.
Charisma can be created by:

Developing an aura of charisma (Richardson and
Thayer, 1993)
Be optimistic
 Be passionately enthusiastic
 Commute with body, not just words

Drawing others in – inspire others
 Tapping into emotions – bring out the potential in
others

How Charismatic Leaders Influence Followers
(Shamir et al., 1993)
1116

Articulate an appealing vision

Communicates a new set of values

Model behaviors for those values

Express dramatic behavior
Charisma and Situational Dependency
1117




Charisma strongly correlated to high performance
and satisfaction (Hoogh et al., 2004)
Best used when:

Environment is uncertain or stressful (House, 1976; House
and Aditya, 1997)

Ideology is involved (Pastor et al., 2007)
Most closely associated with upper level executives
People are most receptive to charisma when there is
a crisis.
The Potential Dark Side of Charismatic
Leadership
1118



Use organizational resources for
personal benefit
Remake companies in their own
image
Allow self-interest and personal
goals to override organization’s
goals (Tosi, 2004)
Transformational Leadership
1119


Transactional leaders - motivate their followers in
the direction of established goals by clarifying role
and task requirements
Transformational leaders - inspire followers to
transcend their own self-interests for the good of the
organization
Full Range of Leadership Model
1120
Why Transformational Leadership Works
1121
Creativity
Followers are encouraged to be more innovative and
creative (Ling et ai., 2008)
Goals
Followers pursue more ambitious goals and have more
personal commitment to them (Colbert et al., 2008)
Vision
Engenders commitment from followers and greater sense
of trust
Evaluation of Transformational Leadership
1122




Effectively used in various job levels and disparate
occupations
Tends to be more effective in smaller companies
(Ling et al., 2008)
Works better when the leader is closer to the
followers
Transformational Leadership has positive job
outcomes such as lower turnover and lower
absenteeism (Hetland et al., 2007)
Transformational Vs. Charismatic Leadership
1123



Both positively related to motivation, satisfaction,
performance, effectiveness, and profitability
Transformational leadership MAY be a broader
concept than charisma
The two forms may be the same
Authentic Leadership: Ethics as the Basis for Leadership?
1124

Authentic leaders know who they are, what they
believe in and value, and act on those values and
beliefs openly and candidly (Tan, 2006)
 Create
trust
 Encourage open
communication
Ethics and Leadership
1125



Ethics and Leadership intersect at many junctures.
Executives set the moral tone for an organization so
they must set and adhere to high ethical values.
Leadership is not value free, and the means by
which a leader achieves their goal must be framed
by ethics.
Trust
1126
Information
Sharing
Taking Risks
Trust
Effective
Groups
Enhanced
Productivity
Challenges to the Leadership Construct
1127

Attribution Theory of Leadership (Meindl, 1993;
Schyns et al., 2007)
Performance outcomes are attributed to leaders actions
 Appearance has more to do with leadership than
outcomes


Substitutes and Neutralizers
Organizational variables can neutralize the leader’s
influence or act as substitutes for leadership
 Leader becomes irrelevant (Van Vugt and Spisak, 2008)

Online Leaders
1128




Networked communication is a
powerful channel
Challenges include
identification-based trust
Leadership can be effective
in an online environment and
many of the same theories
apply.
Electronic communication and
writing skills need to be an
extension of interpersonal
skills
Global Implications
1129
GLOBE Leadership Project Results:
Brazil – Leaders are participative and humane
France – Bureaucratic, task-oriented, and autocratic
Egypt – Participative but status-aware
China – Initiating structure and consideration important: status
differences but participation valued
Charisma and transformational leadership important in all
Implications for Managers
1130


Leaders influence group performance
Leadership success depends somewhat on having
“the right stuff”

Leadership depends on the situation

Transformational skills becoming more important


Managers must be authentic and develop trust
relationships with their followers
Select and train based on traits and qualities
Keep in Mind…
1131



Leaders can influence a group toward the
achievement of goals
Best leaders are ethical and authentic in
addition to being charismatic
In most cultures, charisma and vision are
valued – although their means of expression
may differ
Summary
1132
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Defined the leadership and contrasted leadership and
management.
Summarized the conclusions of trait and behavioral theories.
Assessed contingency theories of leadership by their level of
support.
Compared and contrasted charismatic leadership,
transformational leadership, and authentic leadership.
Addressed challenges to the effectiveness of leadership.
Assessed whether charismatic and transformational leadership
generalized across cultures.