Chapter 7
Leader–Member
Exchange
And
Followership
PowerPoint Presentation prepared by Charlie Cook, The University of West Alabama
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1. Describe the evolution of dyadic theory.
2. Define the two kinds of relationships that can occur
among leaders and followers under the vertical dyadic
linkage model.
3. Describe the main focus of team building from a leader–
follower perspective.
4. Describe the three factors whose combined effect
influences LMX relationships.
5. Discuss a strength and a limitation of LMX theory.
6. Explain how LMX relationships can lead to unintended
consequences.
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
7–2
7.
Describe the two behaviors used in the Kelley Model
and identify the resulting follower types.
8.
Discuss the three determinants of follower influence.
9.
List five things a leader should delegate.
10. Effective leader evaluation and feedback involves
before, during, and after steps in the process. Identify
some recommended activities during each step.
11. Define the key terms listed at the end of the chapter.
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7–3
Evolution of the Dyadic Theory
• Dyadic
 Refers to the individualized relationship between a
leader and each follower in a work unit
• Dyadic theory
 Is an approach to leadership that attempts to explain
why leaders vary their behavior with different
followers
• Dyadic theorists focus on the development and
effects of separate dyadic relationships between
leaders and followers
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7–4
The Dyadic Approach
• Concentrates on the heterogeneity of dyadic
relationships
• Argues that a single leader will form different
relationships with different followers
• Leaders provide support for self-worth
 A leader’s support for a follower’s actions and ideas
 A leader building follower’s confidence in his or her
ability, integrity, and motivation
 A leader paying attention to the follower’s feelings
and needs
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7–5
Dyadic Approach: Stages of Development
Vertical Dyadic Linkage
(VDL) Theory
Individualized leader–follower interactions
that create in-groups and out-groups
Leader–Member
Exchange (LMX)
Focus is on the quality of each dyad and its
effects on organizational outcomes over time
Team
Building
Leaders can aspire to build positive relationships with all followers, not just a few special
individuals
Systems and
Networks
Creating dyadic relationships across
boundaries to include a larger network of
participants
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7–6
Exhibit
7.1
Dyadic Approach: Stages of Development
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7–7
Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) Theory
• Examines how leaders form one-on-one relationships
with followers, and how these often create in-groups and
out-groups within the leader’s work unit
• In-group
 Includes followers with strong social ties to their leader in a
supportive relationship characterized by high mutual trust,
respect, loyalty, and influence
• Out-group
 Influences followers with few or no social ties to their leader, in a
strictly task-centered relationship characterized by low exchange
and top-down influence
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7–8
Characteristics of In-Groups
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Participate in important decision making
Are given added responsibility
Have greater access to the leader
Experience greater support and positive influence from
the leader
Reciprocity
High exchange
Granted special favors from the leader
Mutual reinforcement based on common needs and
interests
More likely to share with own group members than with
members of other groups
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7–9
Characteristics of Out-Groups
• Are managed according to the employment
contract requirements
• Receive little inspiration, encouragement, or
recognition
• Do not experience positive relationships and
influence
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7–10
Discussion Question
• In your opinion, can a leader maintain a
personal friendship with some members of his or
her work group or team without creating the
perception of in-groups (those in his or her
social circle) and out-groups (those outside his
or her social circle)?
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7–11
Discussion Question
• What should a leader do to dispel any notion or
misperception that there are in-groups and outgroups in his or her work unit?
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7–12
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
• Is the quality of the exchange relationship
between an employee and his or her superior
• Face-to-face leader–member interaction is
critical in organizations
• Assumes leaders have limited amounts of
social, personal, and organizational resources,
and tend to distribute them among followers
selectively
• Leaders do not interact with all followers equally,
which ultimately results in the formation of LMXs
that vary in quality
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7–13
Team-Member Exchange (TMX) Theory
• Defined as a team member’s social exchanges
with peers in terms of the mutual exchange of
ideas, support, camaraderie, and feedback.
• Differentiated leadership
 Creates in-groups and out-groups and also creates a
divergence in leader identification and member selfefficacy and at worst lowers group collective efficacy.
 inevitably leads to questions of fairness in team
leadership as some members (more than likely those
in the out-group) may feel that they are not being
treated fairly.
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7–14
Team-Member Exchange Theory (cont’d)
• Differentiated leadership inevitably leads to
questions of fairness in team leadership as
some members (most likely in the out-group)
may feel that they are not being treated fairly.
• Procedural fairness is the perception among
team members that they are treated fairly
• Distributive fairness is the perception that they
have been rewarded fairly.
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7–15
Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) Theory
• Deals with how leaders’ differentiated leadership
influences member and group behaviors
 Leaders form both high-quality social exchanges and
low-quality economic exchanges with their followers.
 The quality of the LMX affects employees’ work
ethics, productivity, satisfaction, and perceptions
 Followers in high quality relationships reciprocate
their leader’s trust and liking through “citizenship
behaviors” and excellent performance
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7–16
Factors That Influence LMX Relationships
Follower
Behavior and
Attributes
Leader–Follower
Perceptions and
Self-Identities
Situational
Factors
LMX Relationship
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7–17
Factors That Influence LMX Relationships
Leader–Follower
Perceptions and
Self-Identities
LMX
Relationship
Follower
Behavior and
Attributes
Situational
Factors
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7–18
High-Quality LMX Relationships versus
Low-Quality LMX Relationships
• High-quality LMX relationship characteristics:
 Better social support
 More resources
 More guidance for career development
 Greater follower input in decision making
 Greater negotiating latitude
• Low-quality LMX relationship characteristics:
 Less support
 More formal supervision
 Little or no involvement in decision making
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7–19
Factors that Determine LMX Quality
• Follower Attributes
 Proactive followers:
Show initiative even in areas outside their immediate
responsibility
 Possess a strong sense of commitment to work unit goals
 Show a stronger sense of responsibility for unit success

 These follower attributes influence leaders to:
Show support
 Delegate more
 Allow greater discretion
 Engage in open communication

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7–20
Factors that Determine LMX Quality (cont'd)
• Leader–Follower Perceptions
 The leader’s first impressions of the follower can
influence the leader’s behavior toward the follower
 A positive relationship is more likely when:
The follower is perceived to be competent and dependable
 The leader and follower hold similar values and attitudes

 A favorable exchange relationship correlates with:
Greater likelihood of support by the leader
 Fewer pressure tactics by the leader
 Greater involvement and mentoring by the leader
 More honest input from the leader

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7–21
Factors that Determine LMX Quality (cont'd)
• Follower Perceptions of the Leader
 Leaders perceived to be competent, experienced, fair,
and honest are more likely to be supported.
• Self-Identity (Self Concept)
 Individual self-identity is self-centered and unique.

Can create problems for followers and leaders in forming
LMX relationships
 Relational self-identity is dyad-centered, forming
relationships with others
 Collective self-identity is defined in terms of the
broader group
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7–22
Situational Factors that Determine
LMX Quality
Stage of the
relationship in the
life cycle model
Managerial
resource strength
of the leader
Width of leader’s
span of control
Quality of work
group’s climate
Strength of
individual’s social
identity with group
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7–23
The Life Cycle Model for Developing
Positive LMX Relations
• Initial Stage
 The leader and follower conduct themselves as
strangers in an economic-based exchange
• Middle Stage
 The leader and follower become acquainted and
refine the roles they will play together.
• Mature Stage
 Leader and follower engage a social-based
exchange of sharing and mutual commitment to
the work group or team.
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7–24
Developing High-Quality LMX Relationships
• Proactive Follower Behaviors
 Impression management

Is a follower’s effort to project a favorable image in order to
gain an immediate benefit or improve a long-term relationship
with the leader
 Ingratiation

Is the effort to appear supportive, appreciative, and respectful
 Self-promotion

Is the effort to appear competent and dependable
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7–25
Discussion Question
• What do you say to those who argue that tactics
used by followers to get noticed by their leader
(such as impressions management, ingratiation,
and self-promotion) are shameful and selfserving and should be avoided?
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7–26
The Benefits of High-Quality
LMX Relationships (cont'd)
• The quality of LMX is central in influencing
followers’:
 Affective, cognitive, and behavioral experiences
 Roles
 Fate in their organizations
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7–27
The Benefits of High-Quality
LMX Relationships
• The basis for establishing a deeper exchange
relationship with in-group members is the leader’s
control over outcomes that are desirable to the followers,
which include:
 Helping with a follower’s career
 Giving special favors
 Allowing participation in decision making
 Delegating greater responsibility and authority
 Sharing more information
 Assigning interesting and desirable tasks
 Giving tangible rewards
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7–28
The Benefits of High-Quality
LMX Relationships (cont'd)
• In return for these benefits, in-group members are
expected to:
 Be loyal to the leader
 Be more committed to task objectives
 Work harder
 Share some of the leader’s administrative duties
• To the leader this also represents social capital that
gives him or her power and influence over followers
• Unless this cycle of behavior is interrupted, the
relationship is likely to develop to a point where there is
a high degree of mutual dependence, support, and
loyalty
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7–29
The Benefits of High-Quality
LMX Relationships (cont'd)
• The special relationship with in-group followers creates
certain obligations and constraints for the leader
• To maintain the relationship, the leader must:
 Pay attention to in-group members
 Remain responsive to their needs and feelings
 Rely more on time-consuming influence methods such as
persuasion and consultation
 Not resort to coercion or heavy-handed use of authority
• The followers are therefore said to have developed
social capital
 The set of resources that inheres in the structure of relations
between members of the group, which helps them get ahead
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7–30
Strengths of LMX Theory
• LMX focuses on the relationship between the leader
and each follower.
• LMX emphasizes the importance of leaders forming
positive relationships with followers and how this in turn
influences their behavior.
• Research has revealed that high-quality LMX and TMX
relationships do positively influence followers’
organizational commitment, organizational citizenship
behavior (OCB), job performance, and creativity.
• LMX emphasizes the importance of communication
between leaders and followers.
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7–31
Limitations of LMX Theory Application
• Measurement difficulty in focusing on the perspectives of
followers and not those of leaders
 LMX-7 scale
10

Is the most commonly used instrument for defining and
measuring the quality of relationships

Measures vertical dyad linkages and not social exchanges
20
High-quality LMX relationship
30
40
50
Low-quality LMX relationship
• High quality LMXs can result in an inherent bias in favor
of in-group over out-group members in performance
evaluations, promotions, and career advancement
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7–32
Followership and Followers
• Followership
 Refers to the behavior of followers that results from
the leader–follower mutual influencing relationship
• Follower
 Is a person who is being influenced by a leader
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7–33
Followership and Followers (cont'd)
• Effective leadership requires effective followers
• There are no leaders without followers
• The influencing process of leaders and followers
is a two-way street, with followers also
influencing leaders
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7–34
Followership Types
High
Effective
follower
Conformist
follower
Pragmatic
follower
Level of
Involvement
Alienated
follower
Passive
follower
Low
Low
Critical Thinking
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High
7–35
Exhibit
7.2
Followership Types
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7–36
Followership Types (cont'd)
• Alienated followers
 Are low on involvement yet are high on critical
thinking
 Feel cheated or unappreciated
 Are capable but unwilling to participate in developing
solutions to problems
• Conformist followers
 Are the “yes” people of the organization
 Carry out all orders without considering the
consequences
 Avoid conflict
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7–37
Followership Types (cont'd)
• Passive Followers
 Are neither high on critical thinking nor involvement
 Look to the leader or others to do all the thinking
 Require constant supervision
 Never go beyond the job description
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7–38
Followership Types (cont'd)
• Effective Followers
 Are high on critical thinking and involvement
 Are not risk-averse nor do they shy from conflict
 Have the courage to initiate change
 Serve the best interest of the organization
 Tend to function very well in self-managed teams
 Complement the leader’s efforts and can be relied
upon the relieve the leader of many tasks
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7–39
Followership Types (cont'd)
• Pragmatic followers
 Exhibit a little of all four styles—depending on which
style fits the prevailing situation
 Present an ambiguous image, with positive and
negative sides
On the positive side, when an organization is going through
desperate times, the pragmatic follower knows how to “work
the system to get things done”
 On the negative side, this same behavior can be interpreted
as “playing political games,” or adjusting to maximize selfinterest

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7–40
Guidelines to Becoming an Effective Follower
• Offer support to leader
• Take initiative
• Play counseling and coaching roles to leader when
appropriate
• Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary
• Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader
• Clarify your role and expectations
• Show appreciation
• Keep the leader informed
• Resist inappropriate influence of leader
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7–41
Exhibit
7.3
Guidelines to Becoming an Effective Follower
1. Offer support to leader.
2. Take initiative.
3. Play counseling and coaching roles to leader when appropriate.
4. Raise issues and/or concerns when necessary.
5. Seek and encourage honest feedback from the leader.
6. Clarify your role and expectations.
7. Show appreciation.
8. Keep the leader informed.
9. Resist inappropriate influence of leader.
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7–42
Factors that Determine Follower Influence
Follower Influence
Power
Position
Locus of
Control
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Education and
Experience
7–43
Exhibit
7.4
Factors That Determine Follower Influence
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7–44
Follower Relative Power Position
• Leaders must realize that they are no longer the
sole possessors of power and influence in their
work units.
• Some followers may have personal, referent,
expert, information, and connection-based
sources of power that can be used to boost
upward influence
• As more and more employees come to rely on a
particular follower for information, expertise, or
simply because of his or her personality, the
follower’s relative power position increases.
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7–45
Follower Locus of Control
• Followers with an internal locus of control prefer a work
environment that facilitates:
 Communication with leaders
 Participation in decision making
 Opportunities to be creative
• Followers with an internal locus of control prefer a
participative style of leadership
• Followers with an internal locus of control are more likely
to be more influential with other followers than those with
an external locus of control
• Followers with an external locus of control prefer a
directive style of leadership
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7–46
Follower Education and Experience
• Followers with less education and experience
need more guidance, coaching, and feedback
• To improve their performance, inexperienced
employees often seek the assistance of
experienced employees
• Today’s workers are far more educated, mobile,
diverse, and younger than the workforce of 20
years ago
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7–47
Follower Education and Experience (cont'd)
• The need for continuing education and training
on the job is increasing
• Leaders have to shift away from the top-down
directive style of leading where tasks are highly
structured and power tends to be centralized
• They need to move toward a more
decentralized, participative style of managing
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7–48
Dual Role of Being a Leader and a Follower
• Good leadership is found in highly effective
followers
• A person can be a leader and also a follower
• The roles can change back and forth throughout
the course of a work day
• Self-managed teams require members to
alternate between playing leadership and
followership roles
• To execute both roles effectively is a challenge,
given the high potential for role conflicts and
ambiguities
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7–49
Delegation
• Delegation
 Is the process of assigning the responsibility and
authority for accomplishing objectives
 Refers to giving employees new tasks
 depends for its success on a manager’s ability to
know what to delegate and what not to delegate
• Factors that the leader should consider when
delegating:
 Task
 Time required
 Follower characteristics
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7–50
Benefits of Delegation
• Gives managers more time to perform high-priority tasks
• Gets tasks accomplished and increases productivity
• Enables leaders to mobilize resources and secure better
results than they could have got alone
• Trains employees and improves their self-esteem
• Eases the stress and burden on managers
• Enriches followers’ jobs
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7–51
Obstacles to Delegation
• Managers fail to delegate and want to do it all
themselves because of:
 Habit—they have always done it themselves or
believe that they can do it more efficiently
 Fear—that employees will fail to accomplish the task
or that employees will show them up
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Signs of Delegating Too Little
• Taking work home
• Performing employee tasks
• Being behind in work
• A continual feeling of pressure
• Stress
• Rushing to meet deadlines
• Requiring that employees seek approval before
acting
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Delegation Decisions
• Successful delegation is based on:
 Selecting what task(s) to delegate
 Selecting who to delegate the task(s) to
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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What to Delegate
Solving
employee
problems
Routine
tasks
Tasks with
developmental
potential
Routine
paperwork
Technical
matters
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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What Not to Delegate
Personnel
matters
Confidential
activities
Crises
Activities
delegated to
you personally
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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The Delegation Model
Step 1
Explain need for delegating and
reasons for selecting the employee.
Step 2
Set objectives that define responsibility,
level of authority, and deadline.
Step 3
Develop a plan.
Step 4
Establish control checkpoints and
hold employees accountable.
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Model
7.1
Steps in the Delegation Process
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permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
7–58
Guidelines for Effective Leader Feedback
• Pre-feedback—Leader should:
 Remind self to stay calm and professional
 Gather accurate facts on follower performance
 Remind self to avoid rush to judgment
• During feedback session—Leader should:
 Be specific in stating performance deficiency
 Explain negative impact of ineffective behavior
 Help follower identify reasons for poor performance
 Ask follower to suggest remedies
 Arrive at mutual agreement on specific action steps
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Guidelines for Effective Leader Feedback
(cont'd)
• Post-feedback session—Leader should:
 Follow up to ensure implementation of action steps
 Show desire to be of help to follower
 Build follower’s self-confidence
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
7–60
Exhibit
7.5
Guidelines for Effective Leader Evaluation and Feedback
Pre-Evaluation and Feedback—Leader should:
• Remind self to stay calm and professional
• Gather accurate facts on follower performance
• Remind self to avoid rush to judgment
During Evaluation and Feedback Session—Leader should:
• Be specific in stating performance deficiency
• Explain negative impact of ineffective behavior
• Help follower identify reasons for poor performance
• Ask follower to suggest remedies
• Arrive at mutual agreement on specific action steps
Post-Evaluation and Feedback Session—Leader should:
• Follow up to ensure implementation of action steps
• Show desire to be of help to follower
• Build follower’s self-confidence
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Key Terms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
alienated follower
conformist follower
delegation
delegation model
dyad
dyadic theory
effective follower
follower
followership
impressions
management
• ingratiation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
in-group
leader–member exchange (LMX)
locus of control
organizational citizenship
behavior
out-group
passive follower
pragmatic follower
self-efficacy
self-promotion
social capital
team-member exchange (TMX)
© 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Leader–Follower Perceptions and Self