Carolyn Eichberg-Greenstein, Ph.D.
Why initiate services to manage
psychological needs?
Knowledge of impending death has a profound
psychological impact on human beings.
Parkes’ (1988) concept of the ‘assumptive world’ is
changed. All that one assumed was securely in
place, one’s expectations about the world,
relationships and place in it are thrown into
disarray: one’s familiar world is undermined.
Initiation of psychological services (Continued)
Dying person faces many losses in the time leading
up to physical death: loss of health, occupation,
body image, capacities, pleasures, relationships,
ability to care for oneself, and of a future self.
Bowlby’s (1980) loss theory view of the grieving
process is that people feel the pain of loss, and
progress from numbness, to protest, despair,
detachment; then to reorganization or integration.
Initiation of psychological services (Continued)
No single trajectory plots a linear path of grief.
People vacillate; all the reactions or stages
proposed in the literature don’t tell how one
individual will respond.
Each person faces death in his/her own way, some
with complete avoidance, others with terror, and
some with anticipation.
Enable time for psychological care
Difficult issue for the dying person and the family is
there is often little time for psychological tasks
involved in the grieving progression. With
malignancy, period may be short from time at which
there is no more tx available to death. With
dementia, there may be even more uncertainty.
Dying persons need help to rebuild their assumptive
world and redefine their sense of identity.
Psychologists as part of the Palliative Care
Interdisciplinary Team
Good care is distinguished by recognition of the
psychosocial needs of dying pts and their families.
There is an increasing recognition of the value of
psychological perspectives/interventions in the care
of patients with advanced disease and support of
their bereaved families.
Psychologists have usually played an ancillary role
in hospice care; yet are more often utilized in
palliative care programs.
Who gets referred for psychological
Many pts have preexisting mental health conditions.
Others have diagnoses that may be exacerbated
by life-limiting disease.
Pts with advanced dementia may exhibit behavior
that challenges caregivers such as agitation, or
psychological aspects that may be a problem for
the patient, such as apathy.
For those whose mental response does not rise to
the level of a mental disorder, many still experience
significant psychological distress.
When is the appropriate time for Psychological
Psychologists can contribute to end-of-life care
through interventions at 4 times in the lives of
patients and their families:
(a) before illness strikes;
(b) after illness is diagnosed and treatment begins;
(c) during advanced illness and the dying process;
(d) after the death of the patient, with bereaved
Before Life-Limiting Illness Strikes
Psychologists are accustomed to talking with
patients about mortality; thus, they can encourage
advance care planning and completion of advance
directives that are consistent with the patients’
personal values and can later guide medical care.
After Life-Limiting Illness is Diagnosed
Time of diagnosis can be difficult and uncertain for
pts, associated with a range of emotional reactions.
Psychologists can assist pts in managing these
feelings, making sense of their diagnosis,
communicating treatment preferences to their
medical providers and family, using effective coping
responses, and mobilizing social support/services.
Advanced IIlness and the Dying Process
Transition from curative treatment to care focused
on disease and symptom management requires
significant adjustment for patients and family
Psychologists can assist with anticipatory grief and
adjustment reactions, mental disorders, existential
and spiritual issues, advance care planning, life
review, and unresolved issues that are likely to
surface as meaningful concerns.
Advanced Illness and the Dying Process (Cont’d)
Psychologists can provide interventions that decrease
symptom intensity and increase a sense of control.
They can help patients and family members explore
fears and apprehensions and to communicate needs
and concerns to their medical team.
They can teach cognitive coping skills (e.g., relaxation,
breathing, meditation, distraction, or imagery),
communication skills, and goal setting. Family members
can be taught these techniques and enlisted as coaches.
The ending of the patient’s life marks the beginning
of a changed life for survivors.
Psychologists can be alert to the signs of
complications in the bereavement process, providing
assistance to more profoundly distressed survivors in
adapting to a world in which their loved one is
A Statement of Assumptions and Principles Concerning
Psychosocial Care of Dying Persons and Their Families
The International Work Group (IWG) on Death,
Dying, and Bereavement is a voluntary, nonprofit
organization comprised of leaders in the field.
Formed in 1974 to help promote & advance
understanding of the needs of dying persons and
their families.
The intent of this document was to counteract the
tendency to focus too much on physical and medical
Issues for the Dying Patient
The IWG developed 14 assumptions and principles
that address the important psychosocial issues
facing dying persons and offer advice about
handling them.
1) Dying persons may choose to acknowledge or
not acknowledge their impending death.
Caregivers must recognize/respect the person’s
right to deny or not communicate about impending
Caregivers must help family members and others in
understanding or accepting the dying person’s
position, which may change with time.
2) Dying persons can communicate about
impending death in different cultural ways.
Caregivers must seek understanding and knowledge
of the dying person’s cultural and life-style
Caregivers need to be sensitive to nonverbal and
symbolic ways of communicating and recognize that
these modalities may be more significant to the
dying person than verbal expression.
3) Dying persons have right to information on changing physical
status, and whether/not to be told they are dying.
Caregivers need to be sensitive and perceptive to
the different ways the person may be requesting
information about his or her condition.
4) Dying persons may be preoccupied with dying, death
itself, or what happens after death.
The caregiving team needs to be aware of the
dying person’s concerns and fears in order to
provide care that is responsive and supportive.
5) Dying persons can have a deep-seated fear
of abandonment.
Pts may continue tx for the sake of family or doctor
rather than believing it will be of personal benefit.
Caregivers can be helpful in identifying feelings
that may affect treatment decisions.
Caregivers can be helpful in opening communication
between the dying pt and family or physician that
may clearly reflect the pt’s goal for treatment.
6) Many dying persons experience multiple physical
and psychological losses before death.
Caregivers may be helpful in facilitating the
expression of grief related to the multiple losses.
Caregivers may also be helpful in supporting the
dying person’s need for continued autonomy,
satisfying roles and activities, and meaning.
7) Dying persons exhibit a variety of coping
strategies in facing death.
Caregivers need to recognize the utility of adaptive
coping mechanisms and be tolerant of the patient’s
or families’ need to use or abandon such strategies.
Caregivers can help foster an environment that
encourages use of effective ways of coping by
accurately addressing the dying person’s concerns.
8) Dying persons generally need to express feelings.
Dying persons should not be isolated but given the
opportunity to communicate.
9) Dying persons communicate when they feel safe
and secure.
Caregivers should create an environment in which
communication can be facilitated, paying special
attention to physical comfort, symptom
management, physical surroundings, privacy,
confidentiality, adequate time, acceptance of
feelings and shared expectations.
10) Dying persons may find it helpful to communicate
with others who are terminally ill.
Opportunities should be encouraged for patient
interaction, such as peer or professionally
facilitated support groups, social functions, or
designated areas within treatment settings where
patients may informally gather.
11) Dying persons’ communication of concerns may
be inhibited by psychosocial and cultural expectations.
Caregivers can be helpful in breaking through the
barriers that inhibit the dying person’s true
expression of feelings about death.
12) Dying persons have a right to be acknowledged
as living human beings until their death.
Even when they seem severely impaired, dying
persons are still able to sense their surroundings.
Caregivers need to facilitate this awareness.
Caregivers should encourage behavior, touch, and
communication, which continue to demonstrate
respect for the dying person.
13) Dying persons’ psychological suffering may be
greater than physical pain or discomfort.
Caregivers should recognize and attend to, the
psychological component of suffering.
14) Dying persons may have difficulty dealing with
different needs of family members.
Caregivers need to be aware of family dynamics
and recognize the importance of dealing with
individual members as well as the family unit.
Caregivers should be sensitive to presence of
conflicts between family members, and may need to
maintain a position of neutrality to be effective.
Issues for Families
The IWF also developed as assumptions and
principles to address the psychosocial issues facing
the dying person’s family.
The IWF defines family as those individuals who are
part of the dying person’s immediate attachment
network, regardless of blood or matrimonial ties.
1) Families have fundamental needs to care and
be cared for.
Families should be encouraged to provide whatever
care they can.
Caregivers should not supplant the family in the
caregiver role except where the family lacks
physical or emotional resources, knowledge, or
desire to provide care.
By providing care to family members, caregivers
may be better able to care for the dying person.
2) The need to care and the need to be cared
for sometimes conflict.
Those who sacrifice their own needs for care in
order to care for others need to be encouraged to
accept help for themselves.
Some need to receive care before they can give
3) People vary in their coping abilities &
personal resources.
Competing priorities may hamper the amount and
quality of care people are able to give.
Caregivers should not impose their own
expectations on a family’s ability to care.
Caregivers may need to explore with the family
what is reasonable for each person to provide.
4) The approach of death may disrupt the
structure and functioning of the family.
Many families need counseling and support to
prepare for the dying person’s death and its
5) Families need information, but in cases of conflict
dying pt’s desire for confidentiality must be respected.
The dying person and caregiving team share the
responsibility for informing the family about the
person’s condition, depending on the person’s ability
to participate.
Whenever possible, the dying person and
appropriate caregivers need to agree on the
source and extent of information given to the
6) Families often need to be involved with the dying
person in decision making.
Guided by the dying person’s wishes, caregivers can
be helpful in facilitating joint decision making.
7) Families have right to know their affairs will be
shared only with those that have a right to know.
Confidentiality must be maintained at all times and
its meaning taught to all caregivers.
8) Family members need to maintain self-esteem and
Caregivers should show respect at all times.
Caregivers do this by paying attention to family
wishes, feelings, and concerns.
9) Sexual needs may continue up to the point of death
Caregivers should acknowledge dying persons’ and
their partners’ need to express their sexuality both
verbally and physically, with easy access to privacy
without embarrassment.
10) Families with terminal illness frequently have
financial concerns.
Caregivers need to assure that families have access
to informed advice and assistance on financial
issues. These issues represent present or anticipated
problems that may or may not be realistic.
11) Faced with death, the family may imagine that
changes will be greater than they are.
Caregivers can often allay fears with information
and support.
12) Families have a need/right to express grief for
multiple losses and for impending death.
Caregivers can help families by encouraging
communication between families and the dying
person about their shared losses associated with
illness, and encouraging the expression of grief.
Issues for the Caregivers
The IWF developed 6 assumptions and principles
that address the psychosocial issues facing
caregivers and offer advice about handling them.
1) Caregivers need education/experience re: the
psychosocial needs of dying persons and their families.
A combination of specialized courses in death and
dying, and clinical practicums in care of the
terminally ill and their families, may help us to
prepare caregivers to address the physical and
psychosocial needs of dying persons.
2) Caregivers need to be aware of the dying person’s
and family’s psychosocial frame of reference.
Caregivers need to be sensitive to the dying
person’s and family’s current willingness to
acknowledge the reality of their situation.
Caregivers must not impose their own expectation
of how dying persons cope with impending death.
3) Caregivers bring their own values, attitudes,
feelings, and fears into the setting.
Caregivers must recognize that they cannot take
away all the pain experienced in the dying process.
Caregivers need to be reassured that it is not a lack
of professionalism to display and share emotions.
Caregivers need to be aware of the way their
coping strategies affect their communication of
emotional involvement with the dying person and
4) Caregivers are exposed to intense emotional
experiences, loss, and confrontation w/their own death.
Caregivers need to receive adequate support and
opportunity to work through their own accumulated
Caregivers working with dying persons need sound
motivation, emotional maturity, versatility, tolerance,
and a special ability to deal with loss.
5) Caregivers sometimes experience conflicting family
needs and requests for information and confidentiality.
Caregivers need to be prepared to deal with
complex family dynamics and to assist family
groups in resolving their own conflicts.
6) Caregivers may not communicate with each other
about their own needs and feelings.
Caregivers need to be tolerant, caring, and nonjudgmental with each other in order to promote
cooperation that will benefit the dying person’s
Sensitivity to Psychosocial Assumptions
Some believe dying patients should be offered an
opportunity for growth by suggesting ways they can
develop themselves at the end of life.
Others feel that the patient should determine the
agenda and encouraging the patient to deal with
death and dying issues is too intrusive.
There is some truth to both positions.
Dying patients and their families, don’t have prior
experience on how best to die.
Guidelines for Psychotherapeutic Intervention
The dying person has to set the agenda.
Direct efforts at tying up loose ends, not uncovering
issues. Dying pts can more quickly develop a close
working relationship. Whereas, it is tempting to
want to do more in-depth psychotherapy, it is
critical to work only toward resolution.
Psychologists can do an oral history of the pt’s life,
including important family milestones, value or
beliefs to impart, instructions for survivors and
genealogical information.
Short-term Objective of Psychotherapy
“The more complete one’s life is, the more…one’s
creative capacities are fulfilled, the less one fears
death…People are not afraid of death per se, but
of the incompleteness of their lives.” (Lisl Marburg
The need to make meaning is very common among
patients at the end of life . Helping them discover a
coherent narrative to their life and be able to put
their lives and impending death in a context that fits
the narrative can be a powerful intervention.
Bowlby (1980). Attachment and loss: Sadness and
depression (Vol. III). NY: Basic Books.
Connor, S.R. (2009). Hospice and Palliative Care: The
Essential Guide, Second Edition. NY: Routledge.
Halley, W.E., Larson, D.G., Kaul-Godley, J.,
Neimeyer, R.A., & Kwilosz, D.M. (2003). Roles for
psychologists in end-of-life care: Emerging models
of practice. Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice, 34(6), 626-633.
References (cont’d)
Jeffreys, J.S. (2005). Helping Grieving People-When
Tears Are Not Enough: A Handbook for Care
Providers. NY: Routledge.
Parkes, C.M. (1988). Bereavement as a
psychosocial transition: Process of adaptation and
change. Journal of Social Issues, 44, 53-65.

Psychosocial Aspects of Palliative care