Vivian Mann, LLC
LCSW, RPT-S, IMH-E® (III)
[email protected]
(804) 334-4253
Participants will be able to:
 collaborate with play
therapists and utilize play
techniques to foster
growth and change in
children
 recognize the impact of
trauma and support
children experiencing
traumatic stress
reactions
"Play Therapy is the dynamic
process between child and Play
Therapist in which the child explores
at his or her own pace and with his
or her own agenda those issues,
British
past and current, conscious and
Association of
Play Therapy
unconscious, that are affecting the
child's life in the present. The child's
inner resources are enabled by the
therapeutic alliance to bring about
growth and change. Play Therapy is
child-centered, in which play is the
primary medium and speech is the
secondary medium."
Virginia Axeline – 1947
 Non-directive Play Therapy
(Also called Child-Centered
Play Therapy)
 Student of Carl Rogers
 Maintains that play therapy
can be most effective when
child is allowed to take
responsibility for direction of
the therapy.
Virginia
Axiline’s
(1969)
Eight
Principles
of CCPT
Counselor:
 develops a warm, friendly
relationship with the child
accepts the child exactly
as he/she is.
establishes a feeling of
permissiveness in the
relationship.
Virginia is alert to recognize the
feelings the child is
Axiline’s expressing and reflects
(1969)
those feelings back to him
so he gains insight into his
Eight
behaviors.
Principles
of CCPT maintains a deep respect for
the child’s ability to solve
his own problems. The
responsibility to make
choices and to institute the
change is the child’s life.
Virginia
Axiline’s does not attempt to direct
the child’s actions or
(1969)
conversation
in
any
manner.
Eight
The child leads the way; we
Principles follow.
of CCPT does not attempt to hurry
the process. It is a gradual
process.
Virginia
Axiline’s establishes only those
limitations that are
(1969)
necessary to anchor the
Eight
counseling to the world
Principles or reality and to make
of CCPT
the child aware of his or
her responsibility in the
relationship
How Child
Centered
Play
Therapy
(CCPT) is
different
from other
therapies.
We focus on the
relationship, this is the most
important factor.
We accept the child exactly
as they are and DON’T ask
that they change anything.
We do not investigate
We assess but don’t
evaluate
How Child
Centered
Play
Therapy
(CCPT) is
different
from other
therapies.
We create an environment
where the child can heal.
This can be frustrating to
others because they are
looking for a fast fix.
Structuring
4 Basic
Empathic
Skills
tracking/responding
Imaginary Play
Limit setting
 Non-Directive alone may work
for some
 When to add directive
interventions
 Child is dysregulated
 Child becomes stuck in
traumatic play or reactions
 Child is overwhelmed by the
play
 Child needs to learn a skill
happen in the context of the
relationship
are based on children’s play
being recognized as functional
and symbolic
provides the opportunity to rework traumatic events
Provide corrective emotional
experiences which occur in the
context of the relationship and
the play
Child traumatic stress refers to the
physical and emotional responses of
a child to events that threaten the life
or physical integrity of the child or of
someone critically important to the
child (such as a parent or sibling).
Traumatic events overwhelm a child’s
capacity to cope and elicit feelings of
terror, powerlessness, and out-ofcontrol physiological arousal.
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network
 A child’s response to a
traumatic event may have a
profound effect on his or her
perception of self, the world,
and the future.
 Traumatic events may affect a
child’s:
Ability to trust others
Sense of personal safety
Effectiveness in navigating
life changes
 Disrupts all aspects of normal
development including:
 Brain Development
 Cognitive Growth and
Learning
 Emotional Self-regulation
 Attachment to Caregivers
and Social Emotional
Development
 Trauma predisposes children to
subsequent psychiatric
difficulties
Lieberman et al., 2003
Acute
Chronic
Complex
Psychological
Phenomenon
Guilt/
Shame
AlcoholSubstance
Abuse
Depressive and
Affective Sx.
Trauma
Core Sx.
Neurological
Hierarchy
CORTEX
LIMBIC
DIENCEPHALON
BRAINSTEM
Neurological
Functions
Abstract Thought
Concrete thought
Affiliation/Reward
Attachment
Sexual Behavior
Emotional
Reactivity
Motor Regulation
Arousal
Appetite
Sleep
Blood Pressure
Heat Rate
Body Temperature
(Dr. Bruce Perry, 2010
Relevant
Relational
Repetitive
Rewarding
(Dr. Bruce Perry, 2010
Cook, A., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (Eds.) (2003). Complex
trauma in children and Adolescents. White Paper from the National Child
Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force
Perry, Bruce M.D., (2006). Applying principles of neurodevelopment to clinical work
with maltreated and traumatized children, the Neurosequential model of
therapeutics. In Webb, N.B. (ed), Working with traumatized youth in child welfare
(pp. 26-53). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Ford, J., Curtois, C., Steele, K., van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E. (2005). In Journal of
Traumatic Stress, vol 18, October, pp. 437-447. International society for traumatic
stress studies
Gil, E. (2011). Helping Abused and Traumatized Children: Integrating Directive and
Nondirective Approaches. New York, NY: The Gilford Press.
Landreth, Garry L. (2012). Play Therapy: the Art of the Relationship (3rd Edition).
New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group.
Schaefer, Charles E.. (2011). Foundations of Play Therapy (2th Edition). Hoboken,
NJ: Wiley and Son, Inc.
van der Kolk, B.A., (2006) Clinical Implications of neuroscience research in PTSD.
New York Academy of
Sciences.
van der Kolk B.A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Towards a rational
diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, pp. 401408.
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Child Traumatic Stress