Vivian Mann, LLC LCSW, RPT-S, IMH-E® (III) [email protected] (804) 334-4253 Participants will be able to: collaborate with play therapists and utilize play techniques to foster growth and change in children recognize the impact of trauma and support children experiencing traumatic stress reactions "Play Therapy is the dynamic process between child and Play Therapist in which the child explores at his or her own pace and with his or her own agenda those issues, British past and current, conscious and Association of Play Therapy unconscious, that are affecting the child's life in the present. The child's inner resources are enabled by the therapeutic alliance to bring about growth and change. Play Therapy is child-centered, in which play is the primary medium and speech is the secondary medium." Virginia Axeline – 1947 Non-directive Play Therapy (Also called Child-Centered Play Therapy) Student of Carl Rogers Maintains that play therapy can be most effective when child is allowed to take responsibility for direction of the therapy. Virginia Axiline’s (1969) Eight Principles of CCPT Counselor: develops a warm, friendly relationship with the child accepts the child exactly as he/she is. establishes a feeling of permissiveness in the relationship. Virginia is alert to recognize the feelings the child is Axiline’s expressing and reflects (1969) those feelings back to him so he gains insight into his Eight behaviors. Principles of CCPT maintains a deep respect for the child’s ability to solve his own problems. The responsibility to make choices and to institute the change is the child’s life. Virginia Axiline’s does not attempt to direct the child’s actions or (1969) conversation in any manner. Eight The child leads the way; we Principles follow. of CCPT does not attempt to hurry the process. It is a gradual process. Virginia Axiline’s establishes only those limitations that are (1969) necessary to anchor the Eight counseling to the world Principles or reality and to make of CCPT the child aware of his or her responsibility in the relationship How Child Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) is different from other therapies. We focus on the relationship, this is the most important factor. We accept the child exactly as they are and DON’T ask that they change anything. We do not investigate We assess but don’t evaluate How Child Centered Play Therapy (CCPT) is different from other therapies. We create an environment where the child can heal. This can be frustrating to others because they are looking for a fast fix. Structuring 4 Basic Empathic Skills tracking/responding Imaginary Play Limit setting Non-Directive alone may work for some When to add directive interventions Child is dysregulated Child becomes stuck in traumatic play or reactions Child is overwhelmed by the play Child needs to learn a skill happen in the context of the relationship are based on children’s play being recognized as functional and symbolic provides the opportunity to rework traumatic events Provide corrective emotional experiences which occur in the context of the relationship and the play Child traumatic stress refers to the physical and emotional responses of a child to events that threaten the life or physical integrity of the child or of someone critically important to the child (such as a parent or sibling). Traumatic events overwhelm a child’s capacity to cope and elicit feelings of terror, powerlessness, and out-ofcontrol physiological arousal. The National Child Traumatic Stress Network A child’s response to a traumatic event may have a profound effect on his or her perception of self, the world, and the future. Traumatic events may affect a child’s: Ability to trust others Sense of personal safety Effectiveness in navigating life changes Disrupts all aspects of normal development including: Brain Development Cognitive Growth and Learning Emotional Self-regulation Attachment to Caregivers and Social Emotional Development Trauma predisposes children to subsequent psychiatric difficulties Lieberman et al., 2003 Acute Chronic Complex Psychological Phenomenon Guilt/ Shame AlcoholSubstance Abuse Depressive and Affective Sx. Trauma Core Sx. Neurological Hierarchy CORTEX LIMBIC DIENCEPHALON BRAINSTEM Neurological Functions Abstract Thought Concrete thought Affiliation/Reward Attachment Sexual Behavior Emotional Reactivity Motor Regulation Arousal Appetite Sleep Blood Pressure Heat Rate Body Temperature (Dr. Bruce Perry, 2010 Relevant Relational Repetitive Rewarding (Dr. Bruce Perry, 2010 Cook, A., Blaustein, M., Spinazzola, J., & van der Kolk, B. (Eds.) (2003). Complex trauma in children and Adolescents. White Paper from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network Complex Trauma Task Force Perry, Bruce M.D., (2006). Applying principles of neurodevelopment to clinical work with maltreated and traumatized children, the Neurosequential model of therapeutics. In Webb, N.B. (ed), Working with traumatized youth in child welfare (pp. 26-53). New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Ford, J., Curtois, C., Steele, K., van der Hart, O., Nijenhuis, E. (2005). In Journal of Traumatic Stress, vol 18, October, pp. 437-447. International society for traumatic stress studies Gil, E. (2011). Helping Abused and Traumatized Children: Integrating Directive and Nondirective Approaches. New York, NY: The Gilford Press. Landreth, Garry L. (2012). Play Therapy: the Art of the Relationship (3rd Edition). New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group. Schaefer, Charles E.. (2011). Foundations of Play Therapy (2th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Son, Inc. van der Kolk, B.A., (2006) Clinical Implications of neuroscience research in PTSD. New York Academy of Sciences. van der Kolk B.A. (2005). Developmental trauma disorder: Towards a rational diagnosis for children with complex trauma histories. Psychiatric Annals, pp. 401408.