Midterm Review:
1st Semester
Which of the following exemplifies the issue of the relative importance of nature
and nurture on our behavior?
0%1.
0%2.
0%3.
0%4.
0%5.
The issue of the relative influence of biology and experience on
behavior
The issue of the relative influence of rewards and punishments on
behavior
The debate as to the relative importance of heredity and instinct in
determining behavior
The debate as to whether mental processes are a legitimate area of
scientific study
The debate of environmental influences on behavior
25
This approach to psychology focuses on rewards, punishments, and
associations.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Behavioral
Psychoanalytic
Socio-Cultural
Neuroscience
Cognitive
0%
Behavioral
Psychoanal...
Neuroscience
Cognitive
Socio-Cult...
25
The biological approach is most closely
associated with the discipline of:
Evolution
Chemistry
Development
Neuroscience
Natural selection
t..
.
0%
N
le
c
at
ur
al
se
ci
e
ro
s
eu
N
ev
D
0%
nc
e
m
en
t
0%
el
op
m
is
t
ry
0%
he
C
ol
ut
io
n
0%
Ev
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
25
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
has been criticized for being:
ti.
..
..
0%
a.
el
y
cl
os
o
ci
en
ns
U
ed
as
B
tif
ic
la
rg
e
on
pl
ic
ap
nl
y
0%
To
...
ab
l
fo
te
0%
...
0%
...
0%
O
4.
5.
ro
pr
ia
3.
pp
2.
Appropriate for female
patients, but not male patients
Only applicable to research
settings, not therapy settings
Based on large groups, not
individual cases
Unscientific and unverifiable
Too closely tied to behavioristic
thought
A
1.
Dr. Didden was hired by the TLC Company to help them retain their employees without lowering
the firm’s profits. After TLC removed cubicles and permitted employees to decorate their
workroom as recommended by Dr. Didden, the absentee rate declined and no employees left for
jobs elsewhere. Dr. Didden is most likely to be:
...
gi
ne
in
ic
a
lp
er
in
g
sy
p.
..
en
n
A
A
0%
...
0%
cl
se
l
un
co
A
n
A
0%
in
g
st
ria
l/.
..
0%
in
du
re
ns
i
c
ps
y.
..
0%
fo
3.
4.
5.
A forensic psychologist
An
industrial/organizational
psychologist
A counseling psychologist
A clinical psychologist
An engineering
psychologist
A
1.
2.
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Psychologists use experimental research in order
to reveal or to understand:
fe
...
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-a
nd
-e
f
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eo
C
au
H
yp
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ot
he
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1. Correlational
Relationships
2. Dependent variables
3. Hypotheses
4. Theories
5. Cause-and-effect
relationships
25
The procedure designed to ensure that the experimental and
control groups do not differ in any way that might affect the
experiment’s results is called:
p.
..
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bl
e
-b
lin
d
at
io
n
ou
D
en
ta
tiv
re
s
ep
0%
tif
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...
nm
si
g
R
0%
e.
..
0%
as
do
m
an
R
Va
ria
bl
e
co
nt
r..
.
0%
St
ra
1. Variable controlling
2. Random assignment
3. Representative
sampling
4. Stratification
5. Double-blind
procedure
25
In an experiment to determine the effects of
exercise on motivation, exercise is the:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Confounding variable
Intervening variable
Independent variable
Super-ordinate
variable
5. Dependent variable
.
0%
ri.
.
en
de
nt
va
te
.
D
ep
r-o
rd
in
a
a.
..
pe
Su
In
de
p
en
de
n
ni
ng
0%
..
0%
tv
va
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va
In
te
rv
e
in
g
fo
un
d
on
C
0%
...
0%
25
After detailed study of a gunshot wound victim, a psychologist concludes that
the brain region destroyed is likely to be important for memory functions.
Which research method did the psychologist use to deduce this?
0%
is
tic
...
N
at
ur
al
d
tro
lle
on
or
re
l
at
io
na
Ex
p
l.
y
rv
e
Su
0%
O
...
0%
..
0%
C
C
as
e
St
ud
y
0%
C
1. Case Study
2. Survey
3. Correlational
Experiment
4. Controlled Experiment
5. Naturalistic
Observation
25
Which of the following numbers indicates a
stronger statistical correlation?
+.97
-.98
+.05
-.03
-.14
4
0%
-.1
3
0%
-.0
-.9
0%
.0
5
0%
8
0%
.9
7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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While hurdling at the League track meet, Kim fell and hit her
head on the track. After the trainer assessed her, he determined
she had a concussion. What type of scan will the doctor most
likely use in order to see if she has any damage to her brain?
PET
MRI
EEG
FMRI
CAT
A
T
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G
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EE
RI
0%
M
T
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PE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
25
A research study looking at severely overweight rats would
most likely be interested in studying this part of the brain:
0%
nd
P
in
ea
lG
la
da
m
yg
A
H
yp
0%
la
0%
am
us
al
am
us
0%
Th
ip
p
oc
am
pu
s
0%
ot
ha
l
Hippocampus
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Amygdala
Pineal Gland
H
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
25
This is an example of a sympathetic
function:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Promoting your sexual
development
Monitoring the operation of the
body’s routing functioning
Picking up a dime off the floor
Preparing yourself to fight an
oncoming attacker
Figuring out the answer to a
difficult test question
0%
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25
Your brain is involved in every perception, thought, and
emotion, as are its neurons and their neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Carry information primarily in the
endocrine system
Fuel the endocrine system
Travel from the axon terminals
along the axon and create an
action potential
Assist neurons by providing
physical support, nutrition, and
waste removal
Travel across the synapse and
affect adjoining neurons
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A neuron without terminal buttons
would be unable to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Receive information from
neighboring neurons
Generate action potential
Secrete neurotransmitters to
other neurons
Transport ions across the cell
membrane
Fire the appropriate inhibitory
transmitters
0%
Re
c
ei
eiv
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...
m
r
o
Ge
a
te
a
r
ne
0%
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io
t
c
Se
e
et
cr
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0%
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ot
r
u
an
Tr
t
or
sp
0%
i
s.
on
Fi
0%
..
re
e
th
ap
..
o.
r
p
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The process by which sensory information
is converted into neural energy is called:
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Conversion
Emersion
Eversion
Transduction
Transformation
25
Genie, the “wild child” hearing music for the very
first time would be using this type of processing to
understand her situation.
1. Bottom –up processing
2. Top-down processing
3. Both bottom-up and topdown processing
4. Perceptual constancy
5. None of the above
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25
The receptors for body position and
movement are located:
1. In the parietal cortex
2. In the inner ear
3. In the outer layer of
the skin
4. Within the corpus
callosum
5. Within the spinal cord
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2
0%
0%
3
4
0%
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25
These are used to make a mental
representation of a task at hand.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Constructs
Prototypes
Schemas
Categorical maps
Cognitive maps
0%
1
0%
0%
2
3
0%
0%
4
5
The classic “gorilla and basketball”
example shows us that:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
We tend to focus only on lighter
colors
The basketball passes distracted
our ability to focus
Selective attention allows our
mind to process only a small
amount of what’s actually going
on.
The gorilla was distracting
enough that most people
identify it quickly
Both 2 and 4 are correct
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According to Freud, the manifest content
of a dream refers to:
m
...
lic
m
bo
sy
e
e
Th
0%
...
na
l
em
ot
io
th
e
0%
Th
..
W
he
t
he
r
st
or
y
e
Th
0%
dr
...
0%
lin
e.
g
of
...
0%
tti
n
5.
se
4.
e
3.
The setting of the dream
The story line of the
dream
Whether the dream is in
the color or black and
white
The emotional tone of the
dream
The symbolic meaning of
the dream
Th
1.
2.
25
Which of the following is true of hypnosis?
0%
al
g.
..
...
a
no
tic
an
is
H
yp
no
s
yp
H
H
yp
no
s
is
is
is
is
is
no
s
yp
0%
a
ac
.
a
is
H
0%
...
0%
..
...
0%
is
5.
no
s
4.
yp
3.
Hypnosis is a form of REM sleep
Hypnosis is accompanied by
delta wave activity of the brain
Hypnosis is a state of awareness
associated with relaxation and
susceptibility
Hypnosis is a form of non-REM
sleep
Hypnotic analgesia is blocked
by the drug naloxone
H
1.
2.
25
The most frequently used psychoactive drug in
the United States is:
Alcohol
Cocaine
Caffeine
Heroin
Marijuana
ar
iju
an
a
0%
M
er
oi
n
0%
H
e
0%
af
fe
in
C
C
oc
ho
lc
o
0%
ai
ne
l
0%
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
25
Which of the following best describes the stability of
sleep cycles?
rn
...
le
a
en
t
ar
e
ey
Th
ey
ar
e
en
t
ar
e
ey
0%
ir.
..
0%
Th
.
at
..
Th
ar
e
in
n
at
..
ey
0%
ir.
..
0%
.
0%
Th
5.
in
n
4.
ar
e
3.
ey
2.
They are innate so they cannot
be modified
They are innate but can be
modified in times of stress
They are entirely learned but
are difficult to modify
They are entirely learned and,
thus, may be easily modified
They are learned and allow us
to change them at our will
Th
1.
25
Sleepwalking and talking:
A
re
da
n
ge
ou
tw
th
e
Is
0%
...
s.
ur
in
g
0%
ar
d.
..
..
...
R
ur
d
cc
O
ur
d
ur
in
g
to
ft.
0%
ro
us
0%
..
0%
cc
5.
O
4.
ur
m
os
3.
cc
2.
Occur most often in association
with night terrors
Occur during REM sleep and is
therefore rather brief
Occur during sleep stages 3 and
4
Is the outward expression of
dream content
Are dangerous sleep disorders
O
1.
25
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What is the response pattern of securely attached children in the Strange
Situation when their mothers return?
0%
0%
0%
to
m
i..
et
.
im
es
th
ey
Th
...
ey
te
nd
to
Th
g.
..
ey
te
nd
to
Th
r..
.
ey
hi
tt
he
ir .
..
0%
d
5.
0%
So
4.
te
n
3.
ey
2.
They tend to ignore their mothers
because they are secure about her
care
Sometimes they run over to their
mothers and sometimes the do
not; there’s no consistent pattern
in their responses
They tend to go to their mothers
for comfort
They tend to run over to their
mothers and beg them not to leave
again.
They hit their mothers
Th
1.
25
When baby Stephanie starts crying, her mother or father hurries to see if she
needs anything, and they comfort her when she is upset. According to
Erikson, Stephanie is likely to develop:
Competence
Trust
Inferiority
Mistrust
Autonomy
om
ut
on
A
M
0%
y
0%
is
tr
us
t
0%
fe
rio
r it
y
Tr
us
t
0%
In
om
pe
te
n
ce
0%
C
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
25
A critical period is a stage in
development when:
B
on
0%
fir
s
ild
w
ee
e
ch
be
t
di
ng
le
a
ew
N
...
.
i..
rn
in
g
ar
e
n
hi
ld
re
0%
...
0%
Th
0%
r..
.
0%
C
5.
st
im
u.
..
4.
ifi
c
3.
ec
2.
Specific stimuli have a major effect
on development that they do not
produce at other times
Children are resistant to any kind of
discipline by their parents
New learning is prevented by older
learning
Bonding between the child and
parent first takes place
The child first enters elementary
school and needs positive
reinforcement
Sp
1.
25
If Heinz decides to choose to steal the drug in Kohlberg’s “Heinz
Dilemma”, which main stage of moral development is he exercising?
0%
In
te
rp
e
rs
o
na
l
so
.
..
...
0%
ng
ai
nt
ai
ni
rs
a
lp
rin
...
0%
M
U
id
u
di
v
In
ni
ve
al
is
m
...
an
d
nc
e
0%
...
0%
di
e
3.
4.
5.
be
2.
Obedience and
punishment
Individualism and
exchange
Universal principles
Maintaining social order
Interpersonal relationships
O
1.
25
Piaget used this term to refer to the mental structures
that guide thoughts:
Operations
Phonemes
Strategies
Schemas
Imprints
0%
m
as
he
Sc
St
ra
te
g
es
0%
Im
pr
in
ts
0%
ie
s
0%
on
em
Ph
pe
ra
tio
n
s
0%
O
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
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Once Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a
tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n):
1. Unconditioned
stimulus
2. Neutral stimulus
3. Conditioned stimulus
4. Responsive Stimulus
5. Conditioned response
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5
Shaping is:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A pattern of responses that must
be made before classical
conditioning is completed
Rewarding behaviors that get
closer and closer to the desired
goal behavior
Completing a set of behaviors in
succession before a reward is given
Giving you chocolate pudding to
increase the likelihood you will eat
more carrots
Inhibition of new learning by
previous learning
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4
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5
While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive at the
answer to a chemistry problem you’d been working on several hours
before. This is an example of:
1. Insight
2. Backward
conditioning
3. Latent learning
4. Discrimination
5. The Premack
Principle
0%
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0%
2
0%
0%
3
4
0%25
5
Negative and positive reinforcers are similar in that these
always ______ the likelihood of ensuing responses.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Decrease
Increase
Extinguish
Eliminate
Have no effect on
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5
Operant conditioning, in contrast with classical
conditioning, emphasizes events (such as rewards and
punishments) that occur:
1. After the behavior
2. Concurrently with
another response
3. At the same time as
another stimulus
4. During the behavior
5. Before the behavior
0%
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0%
2
0%
0%
3
4
0%
5
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