CH 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL
DISORDERS
ABNORMAL
• Frequently occurring behavior would be normal
• Something that goes against the norms or standards
of society
• A person can go against the norm and not be abnormal
• Issues in life
• Subjective discomfort
• Maladaptive
• Socio cultural perspective
• Cultural bound syndrome
HOW TO DETERMINE AN ISSUE
• Is behavior unusual
• Does it go against social norm
• Does the behavior cause the person significant
discomfort
• Is the behavior dangerous to self or others
• Two or more is a classification as a psychological
disorder
• People have a right to be different
DSM IV TR
• 1952 the first edition was published
• We are on the fifth edition
• 250 different disorders
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Symptoms
Path of progression
Checklist of criteria
Divides disorders into categories or axes
5 AXIS
• Axis I – Clinical Disorder
• Axis II – Personality Disorder that may accompany
Clinical Disorder
• Axis III- Physical Disorders
• Axis IV - Life adjustment issues
• Axis V – GAF Score, Global Assessment of
Functioning
• 0-100 Scale, a certain level is needed to be in hospital
PROS AND CONS OF LABELING
• Develop a common language
• Able to get resources and insurance
• Stigma
• May give a person a crutch
ANXIETY DISORDERS
• Phobias – irrational, persistent fear of an abject,
situation, or social activity
• Social Phobias – fear of interacting with others or social situations
• Specific Phobias – fear of objects or specific situations or events
• Agoraphobia – fear of being in a place or situation
• Panic – panic attacks occur frequently enough to
cause difficulty in a person’s life
• Panic attack – sudden onset of intense panic,
multiple physical symptoms occur and a person
might feel as if they are dying
ANXIETY DISORDERS
• OCD – intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create
anxiety that is relieved by performing repetitive
behavior
• PTSD – disorder resulting from exposure to a major
stressor, with symptoms of anxiety, dissociation, poor
sleep, and poor concentration lasting more than a
month
• Typical with veterans/domestic violence victims
• Acute Stress Disorder – last for 4 weeks after a traumatic event
ANXIETY DISORDERS
• Generalized Anxiety Disorder – a person has feelings of
dread and doom along with physical symptoms of stress
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No real external source
Occurs most days in a 6 month period
Worry excessively about money, health, friends, family
May occur with Depression
CAUSES OF ANXIETY DISORDERS
• Learned behaviors/feelings
• Irrational thought processes Magnification –
interpreting things are far more serious than they
• All or nothing thought process
• Overgeneralization
• Minimization
• Biological factors
MOOD DISORDER
• Major Depression – severe depression that comes on
suddenly and seems to have no external causes, or too
severe for current issues
• Most common diagnosed mood disorder
• Most of the day in depression
• Suicidal thoughts
• Bipolar Disorder – severe mood swing between major
depressive and manic episodes
• Manic episode – excessive excitement, energy, and elation
• Cycle of up and down moods
CAUSES OF MOOD DISORDER
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Genetics
Behaviorists – learned helplessness
Distorted thinking
Self defeating thoughts about themselves
Certain times of year – Seasonal Affective Disorder
EATING DISORDERS
• Anorexia Nervosa – reducing eating to the point that a
weight loss of 15 percent below expected body weight
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Causes major health issues, heart thyroid, hormones
Obsessed with exercise
They will also throw up or take laxatives
Hospitalization will be required for treatment
• Bulimia – a cycle of binging or overeating at one sitting
and then using unhealthy methods to avoid weight gain
• Purging – vomiting or misuse of laxatives
• Binge may be triggered by a stress in life, then the person is not
able to stop, they have no self control
• Health consequences
• Hospitalization will be required for treatment
CAUSES OF EATING DISORDERS
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Biological
History of abuse
Need for some control in life
Perfection
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER
• Dissociative - break in conscious awareness, memory,
the sense of identity, or a combination
• Amnesia – loss of memory of personal information, partial or
complete
• Fugue – traveling away from familiar surroundings, forgetting trip
as well as potential personal info
• Dissociative identify disorder – when a person has one or
more different personalities
• “Core” personality
• Has been criticized as not true
CAUSES OF DID
• Repression of threatening or unacceptable
thoughts
• Person may feel guilty or shame of who they are
and have negative thoughts on them selves
• Avoid the thoughts by going somewhere else
• Person may “develop” it to gain attention, get
away with behaviors
SCHIZOPHRENIA
• Symptoms
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Disordered thinking
Bizarre behavior
Hallucinations
Inability to distinguish between fantasy and reality
Delusions – false beliefs about the world
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Persecution – others are trying to hurt them
Reference – famous people are talking to them
Influence – controlled by outside forces
Grandeur – they are powerful
• Hallucinations – hear or see things or people that are not
real
SCHIZOPHRENIA
• Categories
• Disorganized
• Confused in speech
• Vivid and frequent hallucinations
• Unable to function in daily life
• Catatonic
• May not move at all
• Does not respond to the outside world
• Paranoid
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Hallucinations
Delusions
Persecution
Grandeur
Jealousy
CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA
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Biological
Genetic
Brain defect
A person may have schizophrenia and a traumatic
event may bring the symptoms out
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
• Affects the person’s whole life adjustment
• The disorder is the personality of the person, not one aspect
of it.
• Difficult to change
• Antisocial personality disorder
• No morals or conscience and is often impulsive
• Socio paths/ serial killers
• The person that cheats there way through school or work
and has no regard for who they may hurt along the way
• Borderline personality
• Person is moody, unstable, lacks a clear sense of identity,
and often clings to other
CAUSES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
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Learned
Genetics
Abuse
Disturbances in family relationships