Erikson studied Freud’s Psychoanalysis Theory under Freud’s daughter, Anna Expansion of Freud’s concept of ego Only developmental theory that extends through adulthood Sources: London, Ladewig, Ball, Bindler, & Cowen, 2011 McEwen & Wills, 2007 Eight stages of psychosocial development with an identified challenge to be mastered As each challenge is mastered strengths are gained contributing to character and health Development is primarily qualitative - occurring in stages Also quantitative because one’s identity becomes stronger with mastery of challenges Nature determines the sequence of stages Must pass through one stage prior to entering next stage Sources: Sharkey, 1997 Tomey-Marriner, 1989 STAGE (AGE) CRISIS I Infancy (0-1 ) Trust vs.. Mistrust II Toddler (2-3) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt III Preschooler (3-6) Initiative vs. Guilt IV School-age Industry vs. Inferiority V Adolescence (12-18) Ego Identity vs. Role Confusion VI Young Adult Intimacy vs. Isolation VII Middle Adult (up to 50) Generativity vs. Self-absorption VIII Old Adult Integrity vs. Despair (7-12) (20’s) (≥ 50) Source: Boeree, 2006 Directly applicable to nursing care of children Health promotion & maintenance visits help caregivers meet child’s needs Educate parents to identify normal tasks Educate parents to encourage healthy development Provides framework to assess hospitalized child & provide care to ensure progression through the developmental stages Source: London, et al., 2011 Integral to holistic nursing Essential in assessment to determine age appropriateness or arrested development of patients Results of ego strengths evaluation used by nurses for assessment and treatment outcomes Ego strengths used by nurses to empower patients to take control of their lives Source: McEwen & Wills, 2007 Research studies were conducted in the following areas: Impact of diabetes on the development of psychosocial maturity and the older adult How school age children deal with disaster Self-care practices of adolescents Concept of generativity in middle-aged women attending graduate school Source: McEwen & Wills, 2007 I personally use Erickson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development each time I am in the clinical area with students. A section of the assessment tool that we use is devoted to assessing the psychosocial issues of the assigned patient. I use this information to identify the patient’s strengths & weaknesses. When planning care, I capitalize on the strengths to assist the patient promote recovery/health maintenance and promotion.