Prevalaence of depression and its
correlates among orphans within
Bangwe township-Blantyre
Khwima Esther Gondwe
Psychiatric Nurse, Queen Elizabeth
Central Hospital, Blantyre
INTRODUCTION
• 15 million children orphaned by HIV globally
• Over 1 million orphans in Malawi, 50% of whom
are due to HIV / AIDS
• Orphaning defined as loss of one or both
biological parents under age 18
• Orphans face a wide range of psychological
issues
• AIDS stigma has negative impact on orphans
• Depression is the main psychological impact of
orphan hood
Methods
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cross sectional Quantitative study
Study conducted in Bangwe
Population: Orphaned children aged 10-18
Systematic sampling technique was used
216 orphans sampled for the study
Data collection using structured questionnaire
CES-DC was used to screen orphans for
depression
• Translated into Chichewa but not validated in
Malawi
RESULTS
Prevalance of depression
H is t o g r a m
50
Frequency
40
30
20
10
M e a n = 1 9 .2 5
S td . D e v. = 8 .8 3 8
N = 216
0
0
10
20
30
D e pre s s ion s c ole
40
50
• DEPRESSION AMONG AGE GROUPS
10-11
12-13
14-15
16-17
18
Dipressed Not Dipressed TOTAL p-value
17(14.8%) 41(36.7%)
58
37(32.2%) 36(31.3%)
73
27(23.5%) 13(11.3%)
40 0.001
28(24.3%) 36(7.0%)
36
6(5.2%) 3(2.6%)
9
Prevalence of depression among orphans
of different areas of residence
High
Density
Depressed 70(61%)
Not Dipressed 82(71%)
Total
152
Midium
Density
43(37%)
19(17%)
62
Low
Density
2(1.7%)
0(0%)
2
Total
115
101
216
Prevalence depression among orphans receiving social support from various sources
P
Outcome Measure Social support
Mother
Depresse Count
d
Not
Count
Depresse
d
Total
Total
Father
Uncle and
Aunt Others None
115(53.2
28(24.3%) 4(3.4%) 53(46.0%) 5(4.3%) 25(21.7%) %)
101(46.8
30(26.0%) 10(8.6%) 49(42.6%) 3(2.6%) 9(7.8%) %)
58
14
102
8
34
216
Value
0.041
Gender
• 50% Males, 49.5% females
• No difference between females and males
in the prevalence of depression
Discussion
• High prevalence of depression (53%) due
to multiple stressors
• Finding have shown that depression
increases with age. Older children were
more depressed than younger ones
• Gender – no significant impact on
depression
• Highly populated are more associated with
prevalence of depression.
Discusion
• Orphans with poor social support were
more depressed than who had a high
social support
• Orphans sourcing social support from non
close relatives had more depressive
moods.
CONCLUSION
• Depression is an important health problem
amongst orphans in Malawi
• More research studies are needed.
• Need for improved recognition and
interventions for depression in this
vulnerable group.
• The CES-DC tool which was used in the
study has not been valited in Malawi.
Acknowledgements
• Charles Masulani Mwale my research
superviser.ccccc
• 55