Articulating Cultural Consonance For
Health And Wellbeing Of The Selish,
Ksanka And Qlispe (SKQ) People
Dissertation Research
Interdisciplinary Independent Study
University of Montana
October, 2014
Anita L. Dupuis, MBA, MPH
American Indigenous Research Association
Dedicated to my
father, James
Dupuis, who
attended the
Ursulines and
Chemawa Indian
boarding schools
from age 8
through high
school.
“You can’t ‘eat’
Indian Studies.”
Cultural Consonance Defined
“Cultural consonance is said to exist
when one’s life reflects the shared
cultural model of the values, attitudes,
beliefs and behaviors within a particular
societal cultural domain.” (Romney,
Weller, Batchelder, 1986, Dressler, Oths,
Gravlee, 2005, Furlow, 2003).
Cultural consonance for health and wellbeing of
the SKQ would exist when…..
Tribal Government mirrors the values, attitudes,
beliefs and behaviors as articulated by the SKQ
People….and when…..
The Tribal Community as a whole is a mirror
reflection in its values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors
as articulated by the SKQ People…and when…..
Individuals’ lives on a day-to-day basis reflect the
values, attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of the cultural
model for health and wellbeing articulated by the
consensus of the SKQ People.
First: Why this Study
Community purpose:
To engage the SKQ community in a process of
articulating culturally consonant models of health
and wellbeing for the twenty-first century.
Academic purposes:
To test the establishment of a cultural benchmark
using a mixed methods approach, against which,
people could assess their own and other’s cultural
consonance for health and wellbeing.
To identify a set of principles and guidelines for
encouraging enhancement of health and wellbeing
for generations to come.
Because the values, attitudes, principles and practices
from days past carry wisdom for today and the future.
Because this study goes far beyond
epidemiology and serves as a prompt of
forward thinking and positive action to place
our concentrated attention on the strengths
of our cultural roots to heal, transform and
transcend historical trauma for past, current,
and future generations
Theoretical Underpinnings
Decolonizing Methodologies (CBPR, CBP Action Research;
Insider Research)
Anthropology
Cognitive Anthropology; Applied Anthropology; Native,
Indigenous Anthropology
Consensus Theory (Romney, Batchelder and Weller, 1986, Weller, 2007)
“Estimates the culturally appropriate or correct answers to the
questions and individual differences in cultural knowledge.”
(Weller, 2007
Respondents define terms and categories in their ‘own’ language
Cultures as Systems (Deloria, 2006, Bastein, Kwagley, Bateson
& Donaldson, 1991, Senge, 1990, Hotel & Scharmer, 2009)
Socio-Ecological Systems (Stokols, 1994)
Public Health Terminology for thinking in systems
Blue: Preliminary Research
Green: Dissertation Study
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Dissertation: Four-part Study
Overall goal: To identify and describe an SKQ
cultural model for promoting health and wellbeing at
the individual, community and organizational levels.
Builds upon
Masters Thesis, and the Traditional Living Challenge, a
health promotion intervention completed for reducing
cardio-vascular disease risk among the SKQ
A content analysis to identify key constructs relevant to
health and wellbeing of the SKQ. (Dupuis, 2010, A Review of
Cultural Values, Practices and Beliefs for Enhancing Health and
Wellbeing of the Selish, Ksanka and Qlispe People)
A lifetime of participant observation in the SKQ Community
Methodological Issues
Mixed Methods Approach
Research using existing resources
Phase 1. Content Analysis to identify relevant
constructs
Primary data collection and analysis
Phase 2. Qualitative interviews/focus groups to
review/confirm relevant constructs
Phase 3. Cultural Consensus Analysis (CCA) to
determine if cultural consensus exists
Phase 4. Qualitative Interviews/Focus Groups to
review results of CCA
Phase 1. Content analysis from existing sources
Steps:
SKQ-Specific Sources and
Other-than SKQ-specific sources:
1. “For Indigenous Eyes (Minds) Only; A Decolonizing Handbook,”
(Wilson & Yellowbird, Eds, 2005, 2012)
2. “Tikanga Maori; Living by Maori Values,” Mead, 2003 & “Nga
Pepeha a naga Tipuna; The Sayings of the Ancestors,” Mead, 2001.
3. “The Sacred; Ways of Knowledge, Sources of Life,” Beck,
Walters, Francisco,1977)
4. “ Indigenous Peoples’ Food Systems and Well-being;
Interventions & Policies for Healthy Communities,” Kuhnlein,
Erasmus, Spigelski, Burlingame, Eds, 2013.
5. “Consulting the Genius of the Place; An ecological approach to
a new agriculture,” Jackson, 2010.
6. “The Fifth Discipline,; The art and practice of the learning
organization,” Senge, 1990.
7. “Stewardship; Choosing service over self-interest,” Block,
1993.
8.” Leadership and the New Science,” Wheatley, 1999.
9. “Theory U; Leading from the future as it emerges,” Scharmer,
2009 .
Phases 2 & 4. Qualitative Interviews/Focus
Groups and Qualitative Thematic Analysis
Phase 3. Cultural Consensus
Analysis (CCA)
(Romney, Batchelder, Weller, 1988)
 Formal CCA
Assumptions: 1) a singular shared model exists, 2)
responses are independent of each other, 3)
questions are all on same topic & similar difficulty
 Categorical Data Only (Yes/No, Open Ended,
Multiple Choice): to identify relevant
constructs: Individual – ‘I’, Community ‘C’,
Organizational ‘O’ levels
 N=30 (sample size determined by level of
confidence one desires
Participant Selection Criteria
 Expertise/Experience across I, C and O
 Knowledgeable – traditional cultural
worldviews, values, lifeways w/an eye for
maintaining their presence, wisdom and
application into future.
 Openness to cultures as evolving, adapting,
surviving and thriving natural systems.
Data Collection and Analysis:
 Independent intuitive card sort of constructs from Phase 1
and 2 for inclusion/exclusion in the model
 N=3 sorts per participant; I,C,O
 Anthropac or Unicet software for analysis
Results: 1) An estimate of the culturally
correct answers by measuring frequency of
inclusion of items in the card sorts , and 2) An
estimate of individual differences in accuracy of
reported information (cultural competence)
Majority or modal items considered to be culture
of a group (D’Andrade, 1987)
Phase 4. Verification of Results of Phases 1 – 3
 Data Collection and Analysis:
 CBPR assessment of consensus on community
prioritization of constructs relevant to H & WB
 Focus Groups conducted with Edlers’ Advisory
groups, Tribal Council, and other interested
community groups as in Phase 2 (n = 3)
 Technology of Participation (ToP™) focused
conversation and workshop method will be
employed
 See sample results in next slide
Table 2. Interrelationship with the Land and Its Non-Human ‘Inhabitants’
Plateau Tribes’
Perspective on
Agriculture
Traditional
Sqelixwu = Flesh
Practices to
of the Land
Enhance Animal
and Plant
Production
Belief that the
Any Cultivation of Fire to Aid
Earth was a part the Earth (or
Subsistence (Roots,
of themselves and Improvements)
Berries, Game,
vice verse
Are Crimes
Travel) 210-220
years ago
Humans Were to No parceling of the Use of Fire to
Carry on the
land
Enhance Browse for
Responsibilities
Big Game
of the Animals
At End Times,
To Enhance Growth
Who Prepared the Earth Woman will of Berries and
Earth for Humans Revert to Natural
Other
State
Food/Medicinal
Plants
Sense of
Above all --- No
Use of Fire to Aid
Responsibility to Tilling of the Soil
Food Gathering &
the Gifts we are
Travel
Given
Value of the Land
for Survival
Contemporary
Views –
Translating the
Values
Evidence of
Animism
Protection and
Conservation of
Resources
Belief in the Great
Mysterious Power in
All Things
A Desire for
Edible
Landscapes in
Backyards
Recognition of Our
Place in the Order of
Creation – Dependent
on Plants and Animals
Worked All the
Time on a Farm
Humans Seen as
Younger Brothers and
Sisters of Mother
Earth’s Creation
Study Limitations
Participants’ capacity to see beyond the current ‘lack’ in health
and wellbeing to imagine a cultural model that would not only
‘promote’, but also work to ‘restore’ the health and wellbeing of
the people
As insider action-oriented research, it is intended to influence
movement in the community, and therefore has an inherent bias
Generalizable only to the Selish, Ksanka and Qlispe community, and
potentially, only to the subset of the community with a certain bias
for how to go about restoring and promoting health and wellbeing
Focus on ‘forward thinking,’ rather than identifying a Current Model
(Charting new territory; CCA may not hold up)
Hu sukil Quqni, Chen es n pielsi!
[email protected]
406-250-7220
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Dupuis.-Cultural-Consonance - American Indigenous Research