By: Candice Carlson and Nina Saadati History Rather than a formally tested model, the Generalized Model for Program Planning is McKenzie and colleagues (author s of the textbook) summary and synthesis of multiple other programming models. GMPP The Generalized Model for Program Planning represents the foundation of health education and health promotion practice. It’s principles are the building blocks for all other models. Benefits of GMPP Helps to better understand all planning models. Preparation to adapt to planning situations within a professional practice. Helps adapt and respond to complex planning tasks experienced in professional practice. Helps lead planning tasks and educate about the basic sequence of the planning process. Steps within the GMPP 1) Needs Assessment 2) Setting Goals and Objectives 3) Developing an intervention 4)Implementing the intervention 5) Evaluating results Assessing Needs 1. Determine the purpose and scope. 2. Gather the data. 3. Analyze the data. 4. Identify factors linked to the health problem. 5. Identify the program focus. 6. Validate the prioritized needs. Conclusion of Needs Assessment Who is the priority population? What are the needs of the priority population? Which subgroups within the priority population have the greatest need? Where are the subgroups located geographically? What is currently being done to resolve identified needs? How well have the identified needs been addressed in the past? Setting Goals and Objectives Goals: General statements of desired outcomes (Who, What). Simple statements of direction. Objectives: Specific measurable steps to achieve the goal (When, How much?) Goals and objectives provide the foundation for planning and evaluation. Types of Objectives Process/Administrative Objectives - Activities presented and tasks completed. Learning Objectives - Change in awareness, knowledge, attitude, and skills. Action/Behavioral Objectives - Change in behavior. Environmental Objectives - Change in environment. Program Objectives - Change in the quality of life, health status, or risk, and social benefits. Developing an Intervention Activities to reach goals and objectives. Methods Objectives Goals Levels of Influence on Health related behaviors 1)Intrapersonal or individual factors 2)Interpersonal factors 3) Institutional or organizational factors 4)Community factors 5)Public Policy factors Implementing the Intervention Implementation is the actual carrying out or putting into practice the activities that make up the intervention. At this point, the planners will learn whether the product (intervention) they developed will be useful in producing the measurable changes as outlines in the objectives. Evaluation of Results The process of assessing the program’s effectiveness and achievement of objectives. 1) Plan the Evaluation 2) Collect the Data 3) Analyze the Data 4) Report the Results 5) Analyze the Results Example of GMPP: Needs Assessment Scenario: A health educator was hired to develop a health promotion program in a corporate setting. • - Assessing Needs Read material about the company Talked with individuals from the company Reviewed old documents from the company Formed a program planning committee Result: Identify target health problem. Higher than expected breast cancer cases Continued.. This was due in part to: 1) The limited knowledge of employees about breast cancer. 2) The limited number of employees conducting breast self-examination (BSE). 3 ) The low number of employees having mammograms on a regular basis. Setting Goals and Objectives 1) Increase employee’s knowledge of breast cancer from base line to after program participation. 2) Increase the number of women receiving mammograms by 30 percent. 3) Increase the number of women reporting monthly BSE by 50 percent. Developing and Implementing Intervention 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) An information sheet to be distributed with employee paychecks on the importance of BSE and mammography. A mobile mammography van to be at the site every other month. Plastic BSE reminder cards that can be hung from a showerhead distributed to all female employees. An article in the company newsletter on the high rate of breast cancer in the company and the new program to help women reduce their risk. Posters and pamphlets from the American Cancer Society to be displayed in the lunchroom. Evaluation The health educator completed an evaluation to see if there was an increase in knowledge, mammograms, and monthly BSE. References McKenzie, J. (2009). Principles and foundation of health promotion and education. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. McKenzie, J. (2009). Planning, implementing, and evaluation health promotion programs. San Francisco: Pearson Education, Inc. McKenzie, J. (2008). An introduction to community health. Sudbury: Jones and Barlett Publishers.