HARNESSING TECH TO
SUPPORT LIBRARY STRATEGIES
運用科技支援圖書館的策略任務和服務
Marshall Breeding
Independent Consult, Author,
Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides
http://www.librarytechnology.org/
http://twitter.com/mbreeding
12 May 2013
HKU Library Leadership Institute
Appropriate Automation Infrastructure





Current automation products out of step with current
realities
Majority of library collection funds spent on
electronic content
Majority of automation efforts support print
activities
New discovery solutions help with access to econtent
Management of e-content continues with
inadequate supporting infrastructure
The Legacy Library





Physical collections: Print, microfilm, manuscripts
Scholarly publishing dominated by commercial
publishers, societies, etc. (No open access)
Library Services focus on access to physical items
based on citations and bibliographic records
The Online Catalog dominates as the primary
search tool for books
Print indexes for finding articles
Key Context: Technologies in transition
 Client
/ Server > Web-based computing
 Beyond Web 2.0
 Integration
 Local
of social computing into core infrastructure
computing shifting to cloud platforms
 Application
Service Provider offerings standard
 New expectations for multi-tenant software-as-a-service
 Full
spectrum of devices
 full-scale
/ net book / tablet / mobile
 Mobile the current focus, but is only one example of device
and interface cycles
Key Context: Libraries in Transition

Academic Shift from Print > Electronic
 E-journal
transition largely complete
 Circulation of print collections slowing
 E-books now in play (consultation > reading)

All libraries:
 Need
better tools for access to complex multi-format
collections
 Strong emphasis on digitizing local collections
 Demands for enterprise integration and
interoperability
Key Context: Each type of library
faces unique challenges


Academic: Emphasis on subscribed electronic
resources
Public: Engaged in the management of print
collections
 Dramatic


increase in interest in E-books
School: Age-appropriate resources (print and Web),
textbook and media management
Special: Enterprise knowledge management
(Corporate, Law, Medical, etc.)
Key Text: Changed expectations in
metadata management


Moving away from individual record-by-record creation
Life cycle of metadata


Manage metadata in bulk when possible


E-book collections
Highly shared metadata


Metadata follows the supply chain, improved and enhanced along the
way as needed
E-journal knowledge bases, e.g.
Great interest in moving toward semantic web and open linked data



Very little progress in linked data for operational systems
AACR2 > RDA
MARC > Bibframe (http://bibframe.org/)
Reshaped collections


Journals now published and delivered electronically
Monographs: transition to e-books underway
 Demand
for e-book discovery and lending
Digital collections: local libraries and cultural
organizations actively involved in digitizing unique
materials
 Media collections: LP, CD, DVD, Blu-Ray to streaming
 Heritage print collections will remain indefinitely

Cumulative effect



Library collections more complex than ever
Library services move diverse
Managing electronic and digital content harder
than managing print
Reassess expectations of Technology





Many previous assumptions no longer apply
Technology platforms scale infinitely
No technical limits on how libraries share technical
infrastructure
Cloud technologies enable new ways of sharing
metadata
Build flexible systems not hardwired to any given
set of workflows
Reassess workflow and organizational
options



ILS model shaped library organizations
New Library Services Platforms may enable new
ways to organize how resource management and
service delivery are performed
New technologies more able to support strategic
priorities and initiatives
Social Computing




Web 2.0 as a separate activity largely a
distraction
Important to have social orientation built directly
into the software and services that comprise library
infrastructure
Avoid jettisoning patrons out of the library’s Web
presence
Find ways to effectively connect with users, connect
users to each other, and especially to connect users
to library content and services
Academic Library Issues



Greater concern with electronic scholarly articles
Management: Need for consolidated approach that
balances print, digital, and electronic workflows
Access: discovery interfaces that maximize the value
of investments in subscriptions to scholarly articles
and research materials
Public Library Issues



Greater concern for e-books and general article
databases
Management: Need for consolidated approach that
balances print, digital, and electronic workflows
Emphasis on technologies that engage users with
library programs and services
Competing Models of Library
Automation

Traditional Proprietary Commercial ILS




Traditional Open Source ILS


Aleph, Voyager, Millennium, Symphony, Polaris
BOOK-IT, DDELibra, Libra.se, Open Galaxy
LIBERO, Amlib, Spydus, NCS
Evergreen, Koha
New generation Library Services Platforms





Ex Libris Alma
Kuali OLE (Enterprise, not cloud)
OCLC WorldShare Management Services,
Serials Solutions Intota
Innovative Interfaces Sierra (evolving)
Convergence

Discovery and Management solutions will
increasingly be implemented as matched sets
 Ex
Libris: Primo / Alma
 Serials Solutions: Summon / Intota
 OCLC: WorldCat Local / WorldShare Platform
 Except: Kuali OLE, EBSCO Discovery Service


Both depend on an ecosystem of interrelated
knowledge bases
API’s exposed to mix and match, but efficiencies
and synergies are lost
Digital dominant libraries in sight




All new content acquired in electronic formats
E-Journals, E-books: all acquired and accessed
electronically
Legacy collections fully digitized
Full digitization of local specialized collections
Reassess expectations of Technology





Many previous assumptions no longer apply
Technology platforms scale infinitely
No technical limits on how libraries share technical
infrastructure
Cloud technologies enable new ways of sharing
metadata
Build flexible systems not hardwired to any given
set of workflows
Reassess workflow and organizational
options



ILS model shaped library organizations
New Library Services Platforms may enable new
ways to organize how resource management and
service delivery are performed
New technologies more able to support strategic
priorities and initiatives
Time to engage



Transition to new technology models just underway
More transformative development than in previous
phases of library automation
Opportunities to partner and collaborate
 Vendors


want to create systems with long-term value
Question previously held assumptions regarding the
shape of technology infrastructure and services
Provide leadership in defining expectations
Libraries as agents of content
procurement and distribution


Content may be decreasingly accessed through
traditional library channels
Content disseminated throughout the institutional
enterprise information infrastructure



Learning Management Systems
Departmental or disciplinary research portals
Academic institutions continue to require specialists
to procure content on behalf of teaching and
research faculty
Digital Impact on content production




A given that new content will be done digitally from
start to finish
More dimensions of research process exposed
Publishing models: pressure mounting toward open
access
Selection: New dynamics in peer review and
subsequently promotion and tenure
Research data




Research Data increasingly within scope
NSF data management plans
Need to organize and preserve
Re-use and repurpose
The <r>evolution of academic
information



Library collections should be built from the universe
of academic and scholarly content that supports
research an teaching
Transition from Print only > Print + electronic +
digital + ??? (new media forms)
Cumulative. Additive
The Legacy Library





Physical collections: Print, microfilm, manuscripts
Scholarly publishing dominated by commercial
publishers, societies, etc. (No open access)
Library Services focus on access to physical items
based on citations and bibliographic records
The Online Catalog dominates as the primary
search tool for books
Print indexes for finding articles
Strategic Cooperation



Shared infrastructure in support of strategic
collaborative relationships
Opportunities to share infrastructure
Examples:
2CUL
 Orbis Cascade Alliance


Opportunities to reconsider automation implementation
strategies
One library = 1 ILS?
 Ability to share infrastructure across organizational
boundaries?

Time to Invest in Technology




Libraries in general lack the proper tools to manage
and deliver access to their reshaped collections
Library and campus tools may seem stilted and
primitive relative to what students experience
outside the campus domain
Tradition of under-investment and deferred
maintenance or replacements of technology
infrastructure in the library
Dearth of transformative technology options?
UCSD Research Data Curation Services
Centers of Preservation



Increased involvement in production of digital
content demands institutional commitment to longterm digital preservation
Digital Curation: create, organize, access,
preservation
Libraries as a whole in the early stages of digital
preservation
Resource Sharing Strategies
Strategic interest in Resource Sharing





Supplement local collections
Provide expanded universe of content to library
users
Print – Digital – Electronic
Lower operational Costs
Step into more powerful automation environment
Resource Sharing issues



Local Control and Branding
Compromises to policies and practices
Impact on collection development
 Targeted

Opportunities for collaborative operations
 Technical


collections among partners
Services
Costs for delivery
Reduce traditional ILL costs
Impact on Library Users




Access to larger aggregate collections
Enhanced Discovery: able to gain access to larger
universe of content
Convenient delivery of materials
Manage expectations on delivery times
Budget planning

Increased activity comes with cost implications



Buy less, borrow more
Factor in courier costs
Technology costs
Integrated Library System
Search:
Holdings
Model:
Multi-branch
Independent
Library
System
Main Facility
Bibliographic
Database
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
Library System
Patrons use
Circulation features
to request items
from other branches
Floating Collections
may reduce
workload for
Inter-branch
transfers
WorldCat Resource Sharing
Patron has Citation for
item not held by Library
WorldCat
Interlibrary Loan
Request Form
User:
Password:
Needed by:
WorldCat Resource Sharing
Request Submission
Dec 30, 2012 5:00pm
ILLiad
Holdings
Main Facility
Bibliographic
Database
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
Library System A
ILS
Synchronization
Resource tracking and fulfillment
Interlibrary Loan
Personnel
Consortial Resource Sharing System
Search:
Bibliographic
Database
Holdings
Holdings
Main Facility
Main Facility
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
NCIP
NCIP
Discovery and Request Management Routines
Library System A
Bibliographic
Database
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
Library System D
Bibliographic
Database
Bibliographic
Database
Holdings
Holdings
Main Facility
Main Facility
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
NCIP
ISO
Z39.50
NCIP SIP
ILL
Inter-System Communications
Library System B
NCIP
Bibliographic
Database
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 4
Branch 8
Library System E
Staff Fulfillment Tools
Bibliographic
Database
Holdings
Holdings
Main Facility
Main Facility
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 3
Branch 4
Resource Sharing Application
Branch 1
Branch 5
Branch 2
Branch 6
Branch 7
Branch 3
Branch 7
Branch 8
Branch 4
Branch 8
Library System C
NCIP
NCIP
Bibliographic
Database
Library System F
Shared Consortial ILS
Search:
Holdings
Model:
Multiple
independent
libraries in a
Consortium
Share an ILS
Bibliographic
Database
Library 1
Library 6
Library 2
Library 7
Library 3
Library 8
Library 4
Library 9
Library 5
Library 10
Shared Consortia System
ILS configured
To support
Direct consortial
Borrowing through
Circulation Module
Strategic Cooperation and Resource
sharing



Efforts on many fronts to cooperate and consolidate
Many regional consortia merging (Example: Illinois
Heartland Library System)
State-wide or national implementations
 New

Zealand: Kōtui, Te Puna
Software-as-a-service or “cloud” based
implementations
 Many
libraries share computing infrastructure and data
resources
Auckland City Libraries

7 separate
library
services
merged in
2010
MyLibraryNYC
Auckland City Libraries

7 separate
library
services
merged in
2010
OhioLink
Iceland Libraries
South Australia
SA Public Library Network
140 Public Libraries
Chile
Georgia PINES





275 Libraries
140 Counties
9.6 million books
Single Library Card
43% of population in
Georgia
Northern Ireland




Recently consolidated from 4 regional networks into
one
96 branch libraries
http://www.ni-libraries.net/
18 mobile libraries
Collections managed through single Axiell
OpenGalaxy LMS
Illinois Heartland Library Consortium

Largest
Consortium
in US by
Number of
Members
Orbis Cascade Alliance







37 Academic Libraries
Combined enrollment of 258,000
9 million titles
1997: implemented dual INN-Reach systems
Orbis and Cascade consortia merged in 2003
Moved from INN-Reach to OCLC Navigator / VDX
in 2008
Current strategy to move to shared LMS based on
Ex Libris Alma
Orbis-Cascade Alliance
Denmark
Denmark Shared LMS

Common Tender for joint library system
 February

88 municipalities: 90 percent of Danish population
 Public

2013
+ School libraries
Process managed by Kombit: non-profit
organization owned by Danish Local Authorities
2CUL
Shared Services:
Collection Development
Technical Services
Shared Infrastructure?:
Illinois Heartland Library Consortium

Largest
Consortium
in US by
Number of
Members
Orbis Cascade Alliance







37 Academic Libraries
Combined enrollment of 258,000
9 million titles
1997: implemented dual INN-Reach systems
Orbis and Cascade consortia merged in 2003
Moved from INN-Reach to OCLC Navigator / VDX
in 2008
Current strategy to move to shared LMS based on
Ex Libris Alma
Strategic Planning
Reviewing what’s behind your motive to change
your software and assessing your needs based
on your budget
Reasons to consider Technology
Changes




Obsolete or non-supported system
Lost confidence in current supplier
Library can no longer operate optimally with
current tech environment
Need a environment which delivers better resource
sharing or collaboration opportunities
Timing issues





Immediate need
Interested in alternative options once they become
standard options
Early adopter
Defer tech investment
Waiting for the perfect solution will result in
indefinite deferment
Can your library justify a Lateral
Move?

Move from a product to a similar product from
another supplier
 Same
generation / scope / workflows
Each of the major products offers both strengths
and weaknesses
 Will a lateral move result in fewer problems or
different problems?
 Key consideration is whether your system
supports the strategic business needs of your
library

Open Source vs Proprietary






Open source may provide more opportunity for local control
of strategic development
Open Source ILS available as a complete turnkey solution
Open source software have fewer mature modules and
features than well-established proprietary systems
Cost mostly equivalent. Highly dependent on specific
scenario. Both options document examples of lower cost.
Decision should be based on business requirements and
tangible benefits
Both open source and proprietary ILS involve relationships
with vendors
Organizational planning
Planning and preparing for
new tech project
Library Services Platform = largescale change






Requires broad-based decision-making process
Committees / Teams
Leverage expertise from all areas of the library
Prepare for change processes
Review and revise operational workflows
Operationalize new system into the fabric of the
library
New Discovery product = moderate
change



Operations remain largely unchanged
New interface for public access
Some changes needed to optimize support for
discovery product
 Metadata
issues
 Cataloging practices

May cover up, but not cure misalignment of
automation software with library strategies
Evaluating and selecting Technology
Deployment options

Software-as-a-service
 Proprietary
 Open


Source
Participate in a shared ILS – statewide, regional, or
consortial
Locally-installed server
 Proprietary
 Open
Source
Cost Spectrum

Standalone Implementation


Consortium participant


Constant annual cost
Licensed software


Lower cost / Higher resource sharing
SaaS


Highest cost / Least resource sharing
High start-up cost / Lower ongoing cost
Open source

Many cost variables
Cost Issues


Consider the total cost of ownership
Direct costs





Vendor payments: software licensing, support, training, conversion
Hardware purchase and maintenance
Hosting costs: in-house or outsourced
SaaS Subscriptions
Indirect costs



Procurement overhead: personnel time devoted to selection
process, including committee meetings, prep, vendor demos, etc.
Increased workload for systems and technical services personnel
Decreased productivity during transition
Procurement options:

sole source
 Purchase
additional software from existing supplier
 Internal justification often required

competitive procurement
 Submit
procurement documents to qualified suppliers
 Incumbent often one of the competitors
Procurement processes

Request for Information



Method to gain in-depth understanding of competitive
offerings
Often a preliminary process to RFP
Request for Proposals





Solicits responses to detailed specifications
Specific / binding cost proposal
Product / support / company viability
Many boilerplate documents available – be wary
Core specifications can be licensed
Progressive Procurement Strategy






Do not reinforce legacy concepts and practices
Do not over-specify detailed functionality
Define a process that will result in a forwardlooking result
Assume that rates of change will increase
Articulate your organizational strategy and vision
for technology
Give respondents leeway to express how they can
fulfill your vision
Time to engage



Transition to new technology models just underway
More transformative development than in previous
phases of library automation
Opportunities to partner and collaborate
 Vendors


want to create systems with long-term value
Question previously held assumptions regarding the
shape of technology infrastructure and services
Provide leadership in defining expectations
Concluding thoughts




Urgency to align technology with library missions
Innovate locally
Collaborate aggressively collectively
Drive strategic development
Questions and discussion
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Topic 5 Harnessing Technology to Support Library`s