Organizational Behavior
and Management
Chapter 07
Welcome back!
Term Test One
Family values are respected more in a small family firm.
Ayn Rand’s philosophies have guided the U.S. economy.
Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort of holding two
conflicting attitudes (or attitude v. behavior).
“You Can Do It” strengthens Perceived Behavioral Control.
Self-confidence can lead to successful behaviors.
Myers Briggs tests tell you where people like you tend to work.
Ethnocentrism is looking at other cultures through your lens.
Written transcript reveals little in a high-context culture.
Hard to change from a hierarchy to an adhocracy.
Term Test One
Friedman says generate profit and let shareholders decide.
Businesses know nothing about charity and distort them.
Leaders are not elected and steal from workers, customers, …
GLOBE dimensions …
Social categorization theory says we trust others who mirror us.
Diverse people do not; we do not understand or trust them.
We are asked to accept people we naturally fear.
Model of Perception
• Perception
– cognitive process that enables us to interpret and understand our
Selective Attention
– process of becoming consciously aware of
something or someone
There is very little that we control
Selective Attention
– something that stands out from context
• Schema
– Represent a person’s mental picture, summary, or
“script” about a particular event or type of stimulus
For Sale: Baby Shoes, Never Worn
(probably not Hemingway)
• Event memory (episodic)
– information about both specific and general events
• Semantic memory
– general knowledge about the world, mental dictionary of concepts
• Person memory
– information about a single individual or groups of people
• Interviewers make hiring decisions based on their
impression of how an applicant fits the perceived
requirements of a job and on the basis of implicit cognition
• Implicit cognition
– represents any thoughts or beliefs that are
automatically activated from memory without our
conscious awareness.
Implicit Association Test
Performance Appraisal
• Important for managers to accurately identify the
behavioral characteristics and results indicative of good
• Characteristics serve as the benchmarks for evaluating
employee performance
• Good leaders exhibit the following behaviors:
– Assigning specific tasks
to group members
– Telling others they had
done well
– Setting specific goals
for the group
• Stereotype
– An individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics or
attributes of a group
• Not always negative
• May or may not be accurate
– a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea
of a particular type of person.
• It is important to remember that stereotypes are a
fundamental component of the perception process and we
use them to help process the large amount of information
that bombards us daily.
• It is not immoral or bad to possess stereotypes
• Inappropriate use of stereotypes can lead to poor decisions
Categorize people into groups by various criteria
Infer that everyone in that category has the same traits
Form expectations and interpret behavior accordingly
Maintain stereotypes by:
– Overestimating stereotypic behavior
– Incorrectly explaining behaviors
– Differentiating minority individuals from oneself
Sex-Role Stereotypes
1. People often prefer male bosses (yes, even women)
2. Women are rarely perceived as effective leaders
3. Women of color are more negatively affected by sex-role
stereotypes than white women or men in general
Age Stereotypes
• Age stereotypes reinforce age discrimination because of
their negative orientation.
• Long-standing age stereotypes depict older workers as less
satisfied, not as involved with their work, less motivated,
not as committed
Age Stereotypes
• Research shows that as age increases so does employees’
job satisfaction, job involvement, internal work
motivation, and organizational commitment.*
• Moreover, older workers are not more accident prone.
* Having interviewed only those who are working …
Racial/Ethnic Stereotypes
• Micro aggressions
– represent “biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings” that exist at an
unconscious level
Racial/Ethnic Stereotypes
• Micro aggressions
– represent “biased thoughts, attitudes, and feelings” that exist at an
unconscious level
• Stereotype threat
– refers to the ‘predicament’ in which members of a social group
‘must deal with the possibility of being judged or treated
stereotypically, or of doing something that would confirm the
Stereotype Threat
• An organization first needs to inform its workforce about
the dangers of stereotyping through employee education
and training
• Managers need to identify valid individual differences that
differentiate between successful and unsuccessful
• Remove promotional barriers for men and women, people
of color, and persons with disabilities
• Self-fulfilling prophecy
– someone’s high expectations for another person result
in high performance for that person
– Also known as Pygmalion effect
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
• Galatea effect
– occurs when an individual’s high self-expectations for
him- or herself lead to high performance
• Golem effect (Theory X)
– a loss in performance resulting from low leader
1. Recognize that everyone has the potential to increase his
or her performance (Mindset)
2. Set high performance goals.
3. Positively reinforce employees for a job well done.
4. Provide frequent feedback that conveys a belief in
employees’ ability to complete their tasks.
5. Give employees the opportunity to experience
increasingly challenging tasks and projects.
Communicate by using facial expressions, voice
intonations, body language, and encouraging comments
that reflect high expectations.
7. Provide employees with the input, information, and
resources they need to achieve their goals.
8. Introduce new employees as if they have outstanding
9. Encourage employees to stay focused on the present
moment and not to worry about negative past events.
10. Help employees master key skills and tasks.
Behavior can be attributed either to:
Internal factors within a person (such as intent) or to:
External factors within the environment (such as duress)
Kelley’s Model
• Consensus
– involves a comparison of an individual’s behavior with
that of his peers.
• Distinctiveness
– involves comparing a person’s behavior on one task
with the behavior from other tasks.
• Consistency
– determined by judging if the individual’s performance
on a given task is consistent over time.
Performance Charts
Performance Charts
Performance Charts
• Fundamental attribution bias
– Reflects one’s tendency to attribute another person’s
behavior to his or her personal characteristics, as
opposed to situational factors.
• Self-serving bias
– Represents one’s tendency to take more personal
responsibility for success than for failure.
• One study revealed that managers gave employees more
immediate, frequent, and negative feedback when they
attributed their performance to low effort.
• A second study indicated that managers tended to transfer
employees whose poor performance was attributed to a
lack of ability.
• Men and women have different attributions regarding the
causes of being promoted
• Managers tend to disproportionately attribute behavior to
internal causes that can result in inaccurate evaluations of
performance, leading to reduced employee motivation
and, as always,
thank you for choosing UMD,
the home of the Bulldogs