Human Growth and
NCE/CPCE Study Guide
Foundational issues in HGD
A. Stages of human development
• Prenatal period (conception to birth)
• Infancy (birth to 2 yrs)
• Toddlerhood (2 -3 yrs)
• Early childhood (3 -5 yrs)
• Middle childhood (6-12yrs)
• Adolescence (13-19 yrs)
• Young adulthood (19 -30)
• Middle adulthood (30 -60)
• Late adulthood (60 – 75)
• Old age ( 75+)
Foundational issues in HGD
• B. Types of aging
• Biological aging (metabolic changes – anabolism
and catabolism)
• Psychological aging
• Social aging
Foundational issues in HGD
• C. Categorizing theories of human development
• Learning, cognitive, psychoanalytic, humanistic,
ethological, language, physical, and moral
• Also: Nature vs nurture; continuous
development vs discontinuous development;
active vs reactive theories.
Special designs in HGD research
Case study
Naturalistic study
Survey research
Correlation research design
Cross-sectional design studies
Longitudinal design studies
Time-lag studies
1. Aging is
A. Biological
B. Social
C. Psychological
D. all of the above
• 2. Which of the following is NOT a true
statement about biological aging?
• A. Biological aging depends on metabolic
• B. Biological aging refers to people’s perception
of how old or young they feel
• C. Biological aging refers to people’s perceptions
of how old or young they feel.
• D. Biological aging involves catabolism.
3. Catabolism refers to
A. the body’s decline to death from its peak.
B. the body’s development from birth to its peak.
C. the metabolic changes that occur in the
• D. none of the above
• 4. Intelligence is accounted for mostly by a
• A. environment
• B. genetics
• C. genetics and environment in equal parts
• D. educational level.
• 5. Epigenetic theorists emphasize the
importance of
• A. nature
• B. nurture
• C. the combination of nature and nurture
• None of the above.
The Central Nervous System (CNS)
• CNS – brain and spinal cord
• Peripheral nervous system – network of nerves
that connects the central nervous system to the
rest of the body
• Growth of the brain involves addition of new
neurons and interconnectedness of these
neurons and myelination (i.e. insulation of the
neurons to enhance speed of neural
The Brain
• Hindbrain – medulla oblongata; cerebellum;
pons; reticular activating system.
• Midbrain
• Forebrain – left hemisphere; right hemisphere;
corpus callosum; cerebral cortex.
• Other structures: thalamus; limbic system
(hypothalamus, the amygdala and hippocampus)
• Hemispheric specialization or lateralization
Genetic disorders
• Three major classes:
• 1. Autosomal diseases – genetic disorders that
involve a chromosome other than the sex
• 2. X-linked diseases – passed on by the maternal Xchromosome to males.
• 3. Sex chromosomal diseases – some genetic
anomaly occurring on the sex-determining pair of
chromosomes, usually affecting male or female
characteristic displays or sexual reproduction.
• 1. The brain usually reaches its adult weight by
the time a person is
• A. 12 years old
• B. 16 years old
• C. 44 years old
• D. 64 years old
2. The most primitive part of the brain is
A. hindbrain
B. midbrain
C. forebrain
D. Cerebral cortex
• 3. The ___________is responsible for
regulating arousal and attention.
• A. medulla oblongata
• B. cerebellum
• C. Reticular activating system
• D. Hypothalamus
4. Sickle cell anemia is
A. an X-linked disease
B. a sex chromosomal disorder
C. an autosomal disorder
D. none of the above
5. Males born with an extra X chromosome have
A. Turner syndrome
B. Tay-Sachs disease
C. phenylketonuria
Klinefelter’s syndrome
Learning theories
• Learning = a relatively permanent change in
behavior or thinking resulting from an
individual’s experiences.
• Learning theorists propose that individuals
observe and react to their environment.
• 1. Stimulus-response theories
• 2. Social learning theories
Classical conditioning
• Ivan Pavlov – salivating dogs
• John B. Watson - “father of American
behaviorism” – Little Albert
• Joseph Wolpe- systematic desensitization;
counterconditioning; aversive
counterconditioning; flooding.
Operant conditioning
• Edward Thorndike – Law of Effect
• B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning – vast
majority of learning occurs when an individual
operates on the environment or when the
environment controls the contingencies of
reinforcement for the individual. Positive
reinforcement; negative reinforcement;
punishment; reinforcement schedules.
Social learning
• Albert Bandura
• People learn through observation, imitation, and
• Self-efficacy – (term developed by Bandura) –
individual’s confidence in his or her ability to
perform a given behavior or accomplish a given
The Dollard and Miller Approach
• John Dollard
• Neal Miller
• Influenced by the psychoanalytic, behavioral,
and social science concepts that preceded them.
• Anxiety and psychological disturbances were
learned from experiences.
The Dollard and Miller Approach
They identified three primary types of conflicts:
Approach- approach conflicts
Approach-avoidance conflicts
Avoidance-avoidance conflicts
• 1. In Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiments with
dogs, the conditioned stimulus was
• A. the salivation
• B. the meat powder
• C. the bell, buzzer, or tone.
• D. None of the above.
• 2. In classical conditioning, when people present
a conditioned stimulus at the same time as the
unconditioned stimulus, they are using
• A. Backward conditioning
• B. simultaneous conditioning
• C. retroactive conditioning
• D. delayed conditioning.
• 3. ________is the most successful form of
• A. Backward conditioning
• B. Simultaneous conditioning
• C. Retroactive conditioning
• D. Delayed conditioning
• 4. John B. Watson is most well-known for his
experiments involving
• A. a rat
• B. dogs
• C. ducklings
• D. cats
• _____________is best known for the theory
of operant conditioning.
• A. Ivan Pavlov
• B. B.F. Skinner
• C. John B. Watson
• D. Albert Bandura
Cognitive Development
• Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory
• Growth in mental development depended on
one’s ability to order and classify new
information: organization
• Changes in cognitive structure occurred through
adaptation, which involved assimilation and
• Schema
• Equilibrium
• 4 stages of cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development
• Constructionist, cognitive developmental theory
that integrated language as well as social and
cultural influences.
• Cognitive progress facilitated by language
development and occurred in a social context.
• Zone of proximal development
• Scaffolding
• Described children’s speech during the first 3
years of life
Cognition and memory
• Sensory memory – all the environmental stimuli to
which one is exposed at any given moment in time.
This information is ordinarily retained form only a
few seconds.
• Short-term memory – temporary information
storage that allows information to be retained for
seconds to minutes.
• Long-term memory – enables a person to store a
large amount of information for relatively
permanent amounts of time, depending on how
efficiently the person learned the information.
Cognition and memory
Retrieval theory
Decay of memory theory
Interference theory
Retroactive inhibition
Proactive inhibition
Other important concepts in cognitive
Cognitive dissonance
Attribution theory
Imaginary audience (David Elkind)
Personal fable
Crystallized intelligencee
• 1. According to Piaget, when people use their
existing cognitive framework to understand new
information, they are involved in the process of
adaptation, known as
• A. assimilation
• B. accommodation
• C. symbolic representation
• D. All of the above
• 2. Children learn object permanence in the
_________ stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive
• A. sensorimotor
• B. Preoperational
• C. concrete operational
• D. formal operational
• 3. Animism refers to
• A. only being able to focus on one aspect of a
problem at a time
• B. thinking that humans created everything in
the world
• C. giving life to lifeless objects
• D. the belief that actions cannot be reversed.
• 4. Individuals can think logically and abstractly
when they reach the _______stage of Piaget’s
theory of cognitive development.
• A. sensorimotor
• B. preoperational
• C. concrete operational
• D. formal operational
• 5. Some teenagers drive over the speed limit
without wearing seatbelts because they do not
believe that they can be hurt. These teenagers
• A. have an imaginary audience
• B. have created a personal fable
• C. are engaged in magical thinking
• D. are using divergent thinking.
• Noam Chomsky’s theory of language
development is considered to be a(n):
• A. learning theory approach
• B. nativist approach
• C. interactionist approach
• D. epigenetic approach
• Language rules that transcend specific languages
and cultures are called:
• A. surface structures
• B. global structures
• C. deep structures
• D. instrinsic structures
• How many morphemes does the word “books”
• A. 1
• B. 2
• C. 3
• D. 4
• The appropriate use of grammar is the definition
of :
• A. Syntax
• B. Pragmatics
• C. Semantics
• D. Phonology
When do babies become adept to holophrasing?
A. Approx. 8 months of age
B. Approx. 10 months of age
C. Approx. 1 year of age
D. Approx. 1.5 years of age
Personality Development
Freud believed that fixation results from:
A. overgratification
B. undergratification
C. Both overgratification and undergratification
D. None of the above
• Erikson would consider a normal 4-year-old
child to be in the ____________stage of
personality development.
• A. Initiative vs Guilt
• B. Basic trust vs. mistrust
• C. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
• D. Industry vs. Inferiority
• A person who obeys group rules and seeks
familial acceptance is in the ________stage of
Loevinger’s ego development theory.
• A. Integrated
• B. Conformist
• C. Self-awareness
• D. Conscientious
• According to Maslow, before people can meet
their needs for esteem, they must meet their
need for:
• A. Safety
• B. Belongingness
• C. Survival (Physiological needs)
• D. All of the above
• Children who are clingy and react strongly to
separation from their caregivers are considered
by Mary Ainsworth to display:
• A. secure attachment
• B. Avoidant attachment
• C. Ambivalent attachment
• D. Disorganized attachment

COU 522 Human Growth and Development NCE review