Center for Health Policy and Ethics, Creighton University Medical Center, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68178 [email protected] , http://chpe.creighton.edu/people/profiles/stone.htm Describe relations of ethics and interactive social influences on health. Explain what social justice demands in addressing health. Explain practical implications of ethics for addressing elderly health disparities in Deep South RCMAR. Ecological causality/social determinants Equality of capability Respect, social justice, care, solidarity SE: Socioeconomic ENV: Environment H: History ED: Education SS: Social status G: Geography CH: Childhood SE CH ENV GEO H SS Geiger 2006 ED Sen, Amartya. The Idea of Justice. Harvard Univ. Press, 2009 A primary objective of social justice should be to provide everyone with the means of and opportunity for equality of capability. Capability: What people can actually do and be. Sen 2009 Powers, Madison; Faden, Ruth. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006. Health Personal security Reasoning Respect Attachment Self-determination Powers & Faden 2006 Sufficient Collaboration & Partnering Health Selfdetermination Personal security Attachment Reasoning Respect Powers & Faden (Dimensions) Ethics Well-being Dimensions •Health •Personal security •Reasoning •Respect •Attachment •Self-determination Powers & Faden (Dimensions) Social Determinants of Health •Income/wealth •Physical environment •Social environment •Healthcare acc/qual •Historical narratives “Health promotion interventions take place in a complex environment that includes family and social relationships, economic and geographic factors, and physical barriers and opportunities, all of which influence older persons’ ability to process health information and translate it into new behavior.” NRC 2004, p.115 “There is increasing evidence that wellbeing in advanced age is as much if not more a function of social connection and respect then of access to medical technology.” Powers & Faden 2006, pp. 164-5 Remediate “systematic disadvantage” that reduces length and health-related quality of life › Identify › Prioritize responses › Act › Avoid/change policy that disadvantage Powers & Faden 2006, pp 87,99 Respect Social Justice Respect Care Social Justice Respect Social Justice Solidarity Care Healthcare institutions: Quality assessments by R/E that are sorted by age Local services: Assessments of access and services by R/E that are correlated with age Policy advocacy and drafting Collaborative community partnerships › CBPR › Translation/intervention Inter-/trans-disciplinary Institutional (structural/cultural criticism) Multiculturalism (including race, ethnicity, “culture,” language): cuts vertically (historically) & horizontally (now) “There is no settled and accepted set of principles for addressing causal questions within the social sciences and different disciplines have different levels of tolerance for various kinds of assumptions.” (IOM 37) › What decision processes? › How do cultural issues influence process and outcomes? Ethics of collaboration & partnering › Community, academy, agencies, other orgs Research Intervention Policy › Among disciplines › Discipline groups and communities Some resources: Baldwin et al. 2009, Israel et al. 1998, Stone & Dula 2008, Wallwork 2008 Easier: enhancing screening Harder: socioeconomic issues Partridge & Fouad 2010 Should a special ethics be developed? › Representation › Intergenerational trauma › Intergenerational cultural differences › Communication › Advocacy › Concept of analysis Postmodern, postcolonial, critical theory Assume hidden means of domination, power, marginalization Attitudes Structures (institutional, processes) Language Grant proposal design Biomedical & public health models Community and state services or agencies Collaboration/partnering & community Special issues › › › › › › › › › Chronic care Chronic disease/debility Continuity & coordination Transportation Advocacy Navigators, helpers, age-bridgers Abuse Life-course traumas Relationships/connectedness Attributes/knowledge/attitudes History/narratives Knowledge Connection Identification Modes of showing respect Age bias 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mentoring Workforce diversity Older AA recruitment Support enduring research or new directions Better methods/tools Increase scientific knowledge to reduce health disparities Disseminate *Tervalon & Murray-Garcia 1998 **Wear 2003 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Collaboration, cultural humility*, deliberation, iteration Advocacy, insurgent multiculturalism** Respect, care, solidarity Structural critique & reform Insurgent multiculturalism** Inclusive collaboration, community knowledge & priorities Community knowledge & priorities, local/regional needs Baldwin JA, Johnson JL, Benally CC. Building partnerships between indigenous communities and universities: Lessons learned in HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention research. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99 Suppl 1:S77-82. Geiger HJ. Health Disparities. What do we know? What do we need to know? What should we do? In: Schulz AJ, Mullings L (eds). Gender, Race, Class, & Health: Intersectional Approaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2006:261-288. Israel BA, Schulz AJ, Parker EA, Becker AB. Review of communitybased research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annu Rev Public Health. 1998; 19:173-202. NRC: National Research Council. (2004). Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life: A Research Agenda. Panel on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life. Roldolfo A. Bulatao and Norman B. Anderson, eds. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies. (Accessed April 27, 2010) http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11036&page=R2 Partridge E, Fouad M. Community-driven approaches for reducing health disparities in cancer. JAMA. 2010; 303(11):1090-1091. Powers, Madison; Faden, Ruth. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006. Powers, Madison; Faden, Ruth. Social Justice: The Moral Foundations of Public Health and Health Policy. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2006. Sen, Amartya. The Idea of Justice. Harvard Univ. Press, 2009. Stone JR and Dula A. “Race/Ethnicity, Trust, and Health Disparities: Trustworthiness, Ethics, and Action.” In Cultural Proficiency in Addressing Health Disparities. Kosoko-Lasaki S, Cook CT, O'Brien RL. (Eds.) Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett, 2008, pp. 37-56. Wallwork E. Ethical analysis of research partnerships with communities. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2008; 18(1):57-85. Tervalon M, Murray-Garcia J. Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multiculural education. J of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 1998; 9(2):117-125. Wear D. Insurgent multiculturalism: Rethinking how and why we teach culture in medical education. Academic Medicine. 2003; 78(6):549-554.