BIPOLAR-II DISORDER
JASON WICH, LUIS SANDOVAL, GABRIEL PAREJA
SYMPTOMS
• Alternating states of mania and depression
• Difference between Bipolar I and II
DIAGNOSIS
• Diagnosed the same way as Bipolar I disorder
• The line between the two is not clear cut
PREVALENCE
• DSM IV says .5% of population have specifically Bipolar II
• Research has found it to be around 5%
• Underdiagnosed in many areas
CAUSES
• It is unknown what causes any forms of bipolar disorder
• There are some links to genetic causes, however the cause is not clearly
defined (Phelps 2007)
• Environmental factors have a strong influence on the onset of the disorder
• Cognitive processes similar to those expressed in unipolar depressed patients
has been seen frequently in bipolar individuals (Alloy et. al. 2005)
CULTURAL FACTORS
• Across all cultures, individuals with bipolar disorder had similar symptoms and
additional mental health problems
• High-income countries have higher rates of the disorder than low-income
countries
• Collectivist cultures see lower rates of the disorder (Gardner 2011)
GENDER VARIATIONS
• Age of onset of bipolar II disorder for females is lower than that of males and
were more likely to have mixed depressive episodes
• No noticeable differences on the hypomanic side of the disorder, however
differences are more noticeable on the depressive side (Benazzi 2006)
TREATMENT APPROACHES
• Therapeutic treatments of bipolar II differ from bipolar I
• Psychoeducation has been shown to have success in treating bipolar II
• Family-focused therapy also has been shown to be effective (Phelps 2001)
• Medicines known as “mood-stabilisers”, lithium and valproate most common
ETIOLOGY AND THERAPY
• Social support has been seen to be a trigger for the onset of bipolar disorder,
showing that increased positive feedback from family/friends can help treat
the disorder
WALKER-TESSNER MODEL
Family Interaction
Biological:
Genes
Fluctuating Levels of
Neurotransmitters
Bipolar 2 Disorder
CITATIONS
•
Alloy, L., Abramson, L., Urosevic, S., Walshaw, P., Nusslok, R., & Neeren, A. (2005). The psychosocial context of bipolar
disorder: Environmental, cognitive, and developmental risk factors.Clinical Psychology Review, 25, 1043-1075.
•
Angst, Jules. (1998). The emerging epidemiology of hypomania and bipolar II disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders,
50,2, 143-151.
•
Benazzi, F. (2006). Gender differences in bipolar–II disorder. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical
Neuroscience,256(2), 67-71.
•
Gardner, A. (2011, March 7). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study.CNN Health. Retrieved March 2, 2014,
from http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/03/07/US.highest.bipolar.rates
•
Judd, L. et. Al. "A Prospective Investigation of the Natural History of the Long-term Weekly Symptomatic Status of
Bipolar II Disorder FREE." JAMA Network. JAMA, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2014.
<http://archpsyc.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=207252#METHODS>.
•
Phelps, J. (n.d.). 300 pages on complex mood and anxiety problems. Bipolar II, Mood Swings without Mania; Brain
Tours; Stress andDepression; Hormones and Mood; and more.... Retrieved March 2, 2014,
from http://www.psycheducation.org/
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Bipolar II Jason Luis Gabriel