Hofstede’s approach
 Power distance
 Uncertainty avoidance
 Individualism-collectivism
 Masculinity-femininity
 Bond: Based on Chinese data, added Confucian work
dynamism (or Long-term orientation)
What about levels in different
countries? (www.geerthofstede.com)
140
120
100
80
Power distance
Individualism
60
Masculinity
Uncertainty Avoid
Long Term Orient
40
20
0
United States
Malaysia
India
China
France
Ghana
Hungary
Schwartz world value survey
 At individual level (10 values):
 Openness to change vs. tradition
 Self-enhancements vs. self-transcendence
 http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/schwart
z_inventory.htm
 At nation level (7 values):
 Autonomy-embeddedness
 Hierarchy-egalitarianism
 Mastery-harmony
 http://www.imointernational.de/englisch/html/siebenwerte_en.html
Other approaches
 Smith et al.
 Loyalty to organization vs. utilitarianism
 Conservation vs. egalitarianism
 Inglehart
 Self-expression vs. survival
 Rational-legal vs. traditional authority
 Tight vs. Loose cultures (Gelfand et al., 2011)
 How does this concept relate to the others?
 Is this a country-level variable?
 Why are certain countries high or low?
 What other effects might this have?
Culture vs. evolution
 Are the approaches contradictory or complementary?
 What are some limitations of this area of research?
Cultural differences in

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
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




Self-concept
Self-consistency (self-monitoring)
What does it mean to be multi-cultural?
Self-enhancement
Approach/avoidance
Agency and control
Desire to fit in
Honor culture
Relationships
 In vs out group
 Friendship differences
Culture and cognition
 Cognition (Nisbett, Peng, Choi, & Norenzayan, 2001)
 Analytic vs. holistic thinking
 Attention to background
 Categorization
 Reasoning styles
 Attribution
Moderators of cognitive
differences
 Situational salience
 Diagnosticity of behavior
Multilevel analyses (Miyamoto,
2013)
 Distal situational factors
 Ancient Greek vs. Chinese cultures
 History
 Settlement/frontiers
 Religion
 Social class
 Proximal leve l situational factors
 Analytic vs. holistic:
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Parenting practices
Nonverbal communication
Cultural products
 Independent vs. interdependent

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Textbooks
Magazine ads
Social interactions
 Individual level factors
 Priming of culture
 Individual differences
 Why isn’t there much difference at the individual
level?
Distal/proximal interactions
 Power’s effects on cognition
 Differences in power by culture and effects on
cognition
 Personal vs. social power
 What are the longitudinal effects of these proximal
factors?
Culture and emotion
 Emotion
 Basic emotions
 Display rules
 Intensity of emotions
 Happiness
 In-group advantage in “emotional dialect”
Emotions
 Where do emotions come from and what is their
purpose?
 Appraisal theory
 Relevance, congruence, responsibility, control, power
 Interpret important event or object, give it meaning, get
emotion
 Critiques of appraisal theory
 Schachter’s two-factor theory of emotion
 Misattribution of arousal
 Mood congruence
 Affect infusion model (Forgas)
 Low infusion: direct access and motivated processing
 High infusion: heuristic and substantive
 Similarities to other dual process: HSM and ELM
 How are emotions social?
 Contagion of emotion vs. norms (bottom up vs. top
down)
 Unconscious emotion (subliminal faces)
 Moral judgments: trustworthiness and dominance
Embodiment of emotion
 Niedenthal et al., 2007
 What are examples of embodied emotions?
 What are mirror neurons, and how do they relate to
embodied emotion?
Disgust (Chapman & Anderson,
2013)
 What is disgust?
 Why do we feel disgust (what purpose does it serve)?
 What makes us feel disgust?
 Do moral transgressions lead to feelings of disgust?
 Theories:
 Moral domain theory (Turiel)

Moral, societal, psychological
 Five foundations theory (Haidt)
 Do we feel disgust at all moral transgressions, or just
those related to purity violations?
 What evidence do they provide?
 Neuroimaging
 Self-report measures
 Implicit measures
 Manipulations of disgust
Individual differences
 Disgust Scale (Haidt et al., 1994)
 http://www.yourmorals.org/disgust.php
 Three Domain Disgust Scale (Tybur et al., 2009)
 http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10
.1.1.186.6114&rep=rep1&type=pdf
 What causes IDs in disgust?
 What are they correlated with?
 People with OCD
General disgust issues
 How is moral disgust different from physical disgust?
 How is it different from anger?
 Why would we have moral disgust?
 Which of their models seems best supported?
 How are they similar and different?