Measuring Social Perception Using the DANVA 2 & the NEPSY-II DANVA 2 The Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (Copyright Dyssemia, Inc. 1999–2000) http://www.psychology.emory.edu/clinical/interpersonal/danva.htm DANVA 2 Description PURPOSE: To measure a person’s competence in affect recognition by reading facial expressions and voice tones. Includes 4 subtests: – (1) Child Faces 2; (2) Adult faces 2 – (3) Child Paralanguage 2; (4) Adult Paralanguage 2 Four basic emotions are included: – happiness, sadness, anger, fear Two levels of emotional intensity are included: – High & Low. Both males and females are included in all subtest stimuli. DANVA 2 - Child Faces 2 Test Construction: – Includes 24 photographs of child facial expressions Internal Consistency: – coefficent alpha ranged from .69 to .81 with a modal alpha of .76 across 10 studies with children aged 4 – 16. Test-Retest Reliability: – r = .74, n = 84, for 3rd grade children. DANVA 2 - Child Faces 2 Discriminative Validity: – DANVA2-CF scores have not been found to be related to IQ scores or tests of general cognitive ability in a number of studies. Criterion-Related Validity: – Lower accuracy scores were significantly correlated with lower social competence in elementary students. – Lower scores in elementary students are associated with greater external control expectancies, greater depression in boys, lower self-esteem in girls, difficulties with teachers, and psychopathy in boys. DANVA 2 Opening Screen DANVA 2 Main Menu DANVA 2 Child Faces Menu DANVA 2 Child Faces Subtest • Clients are given 4 seconds to view each photo, which then disappears. Then, they choose the emotion they think the picture shows. Once ready, they click the next button. What is the emotion? DANVA 2 Child Faces Subtest What is the emotion? DANVA 2 Child Faces Subtest What is the emotion? DANVA 2 Child Faces Subtest What is the emotion? Paralanguage Subtest “I’m going out of the room now, but I’ll be back later.” DANVA 2 Client Results DANVA 2 Data: Child Faces Table 1: Total Errors; per Affect; per Intensity Table 2: Affect Errors x Intensity TABLE 3: Affect Errors x Type of Affect TABLE 4: Affect Errors x Affect x Intensity DANVA 2 Report Print Out DANVA 2 Norms (Ages 5-18) CASE Study: Eron Profile: – Age 7 – 11 – profile: Processing Speed (79) and Perceptual Reasoning (61) > Verbal Comprehension (27) and Auditory Working Memory (21) – 5 out of 12 atypical indices on the CPT-II – Possible DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of 314.9 ADHD-NOS – Referred because of playground aggression, and difficulty understanding his emotions & those of others. Noncompliant during counselling efforts. CASE Study: Eron DANVA-2 Results Eron Norm Group 24 No. of Errors 20 16 15 12 8 11 11.3 11 8.2 8 6 4 0 Adult Faces Child Faces Adult Paralanguage Child Paralanguage CASE Study: Eron DANVA-2 Results Percentage of Errors Adult Faces 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Child Faces 45 27 18 7 0 Happy Sad 36 33 Angry 33 Fearful CASE Study: Eron ADULT FACES: Emotion Presented Incorrect Interpretation % of Errors Incorrect Interpretation % of Errors Happy sad 7 -- -- Sad angry 27 -- -- Angry happy 20 sad 13 Fearful happy 27 angry 7 CASE Study: Eron CHILD FACES: Emotion Presented Incorrect Interpretation % of Errors Incorrect Interpretation % of Errors Incorrect Interpretatio n % of Errors Happy -- -- -- -- -- -- Sad happy 18 -- -- -- -- Angry happy 18 fearful 18 -- -- Fearful happy 18 sad 18 angry 9 NEPSY-II Social Perception Battery NEPSY-II Description This assesses two main areas: – 1. Affect Recognition: discriminating happy, sad, anger, fear, disgust, and neutral from children’s facial expressions – 2. Theory of Mind: inferring others’ perspectives (e.g., belief, intention, deception, emotion, imagination, and pretending), and relating emotions to the social context NEPSY-II Social Perception Reliability: – Internal Consistency: Ages 7-12 = .87 for Affect Recognition; none reported for Theory of Mind in this age group. – Test-Retest: Ages 7:0-8:11 = .60 for Affect Recognition Validity: – Concurrent: AR Total with WISC-IV Comprehension = .30 AR Total with WNV Picture Arrangement = .05 AR Total with DSMD Conduct Problems = -.45 – Clinical Groups: AR Total sig. differentiated Autism from control group (1.19), but not Asperger’s individuals from control group (.19). NEPSY-II Affect Recognition NEPSY-II Theory of Mind CASE Study: Eron NEPSY-II Social Perception – Affect Recognition: When trying to discriminate happy, sad, anger, fear, discussed, and neutral from children’s facial expressions, he obtained a scaled score of 4, at the 2nd percentile. Interpreted fear as happiness (6th – 10th %ile) – Theory of Mind: When trying to infer others’ perspectives (e.g., belief, intention, deception, emotion, imagination, and pretending), and relate emotions to social context, Eron obtained a score within the Average range (51-75 %ile). CASE Study: Eron Recommendations: 1. 2. 3. Eron should receive individual counselling to improve his ability to identify facial expressions of various emotions in children and adults. Start with teaching him to correctly identify the facial expressions of anger and fear. A useful tool for teaching affect recognition is a DVD program called ‘Mind Reading.’ The DVD consists of 3 areas: (1) the Emotions Library, (2) The Learning Center, and (3) the Games Zone. Using the software, you can explore up to 412 emotions, seeing and hearing each one performed by six different people, including children and adults of both gender. Adults working with Eron should always verbalize how they feel, and not communicate through facial expression alone. He may misperceive adult facial expressions of happy, sad, and angry.