PowerPoint Presentation
to Accompany Chapter 2 of
Management
Canadian Edition
Schermerhorn  Wright
Prepared by: Michael K. McCuddy
Adapted by: Lynda Anstett & Lorie Guest
Published by: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Ltd.
Planning Ahead — Chapter 2 Study Questions
 What can be learned from classical management
thinking?
 What ideas were introduced by the human
resource approaches?
 What is the role of quantitative analysis in
management?
 What is unique about the systems view and
contingency thinking?
 What are the continuing management themes of
the 21st century?
Management - Chapter 2
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Classical approaches to management
include:
– Scientific management
– Administrative principles
– Bureaucratic organization
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Figure 2.1 Major branches in the classical
approach to management.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
– Develop rules of motion, standardized work
implements, and proper working conditions for every
job.
– Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the
job.
– Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.
– Support workers by carefully planning their work and
removing obstacles.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Scientific management (the Gilbreths)
– Motion study
• Science of reducing a job or task to its basic
physical motions.
– Eliminating wasted motions improves
performance.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — rules
of management:
– Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future.
– Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to
implement the plan.
– Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to
get the best work toward the plan.
– Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and
ensure information is shared and problems solved.
– Control — to make sure things happen according to
plan and to take necessary corrective action.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — key
principles of management:
– Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken
line of communication from the top to the bottom of the
organization.
– Unity of command — each person should receive
orders from only one boss.
– Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of
all activities with the same performance objective.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Administrative principles (Mary Parker
Follett)
– Groups and human cooperation:
• Groups are mechanisms through which individuals
can combine their talents for a greater good.
• Organizations are cooperating “communities” of
managers and workers.
• Manager’s job is to help people in the organization
cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Administrative principles (Mary Parker
Follett)
– Forward-looking management insights:
• Making every employee an owner creates a sense of
collective responsibility (precursor of employee
ownership, profit sharing, and gain-sharing)
• Business problems involve a variety of inter-related
factors (precursor of systems thinking)
• Private profits relative to public good (precursor of
managerial ethics and social responsibility)
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
– Bureaucracy
• An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient
form of organization.
• Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate
authority.
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Study Question 1: What can be learned from
classical management thinking?
 Characteristics of
bureaucratic
organizations:
 Possible disadvantages
of bureaucracy:
– Clear division of labor
– Clear hierarchy of
authority
– Formal rules and
procedures
– Impersonality
– Careers based on merit
– Excessive paperwork
or “red tape”
– Slowness in handling
problems
– Rigidity in the face of
shifting needs
– Resistance to change
– Employee apathy
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Human resource approaches include:
– Hawthorne studies
– Maslow’s theory of human needs
– McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
– Argyris’s theory of adult personality
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Figure 2.2 Foundations in the behavioral or human resource
approaches to management.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Hawthorne studies
– Initial study examined how economic
incentives and physical conditions affected
worker output.
– No consistent relationship found.
– “Psychological factors” influenced results.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Hawthorne studies (cont.)
– Relay assembly test-room studies
• Manipulated physical work conditions to assess
impact on output.
• Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of
previous experiment.
• Factors that accounted for increased productivity:
– Group atmosphere
– Participative supervision
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Hawthorne studies (cont.)
– Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and
group processes.
• Some things satisfied some workers but not others.
• People restricted output to adhere to group norms.
– Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies:
• Social and human concerns are keys to productivity.
• Hawthorne effect — people who are singled out for
special attention perform as expected.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Maslow’s theory of human needs
– A need is a physiological or psychological
deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy.
– Need levels:
•
•
•
•
•
Physiological
Safety
Social
Esteem
Self-actualization
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Figure 2.3 Maslow’s hierarchy of human
needs.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Maslow’s theory of human needs
– Deficit principle
• A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior.
– Progression principle
• A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-level
need is satisfied.
– Both principles cease to operate at self-actualization
level.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 McGregor’s Theory X
assumes that workers:
–
–
–
–
–
Dislike work
Lack ambition
Are irresponsible
Resist change
Prefer to be led
 McGregor’s Theory Y
assumes that workers
are:
– Willing to work
– Capable of self control
– Willing to accept
responsibility
– Imaginative and
creative
– Capable of selfdirection
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Implications of Theory X and Theory Y:
– Managers create self-fulfilling prophecies.
– Theory X managers create situations where
workers become dependent and reluctant.
– Theory Y managers create situations where
workers respond with initiative and high
performance.
• Central to notions of empowerment and selfmanagement.
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Study Question 2: What ideas were introduced
by the human resource approaches?
 Argyris’s theory of adult personality
– Classical management principles and practices inhibit
worker maturation and are inconsistent with the mature
adult personality.
– Management practices should accommodate the mature
personality by:
• Increasing task responsibility
• Increasing task variety
• Using participative decision making
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Study Question 3: What is the role of
quantitative analysis in management?
 Management science (operations research)
foundations
– Scientific application of mathematical techniques to
management problems
– Techniques and applications include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Mathematical forecasting
Inventory modeling
Linear programming
Queuing theory
Network models
Simulations
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Study Question 3: What is the role of
quantitative analysis in management?
 Quantitative analysis today
– Use of staff specialists to help managers apply
techniques.
– Software and hardware developments have
expanded potential quantitative applications to
managerial problems.
– Good judgment and appreciation for human
factors must accompany use of quantitative
analysis.
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Study Question 4: What is unique about the
systems view and contingency thinking?
 Systems thinking
– System
• Collection of interrelated parts that function together to achieve
a common purpose.
– Subsystem
• A smaller component of a larger system.
– Open systems
• Organizations that interact with their environments in the
continual process of transforming resource inputs into outputs.
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Figure 2.4 Organizations as complex
networks of interacting subsystems.
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Study Question 4: What is unique about the
systems view and contingency thinking?
 Contingency thinking
– Tries to match managerial responses with
problems and opportunities unique to different
situations.
• Especially individual or environmental differences.
– No “one best way” to manage.
– Appropriate way to manage depends on the
situation.
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Study Question 5: What are continuing
management themes of the 21st century?
 Quality and performance excellence
– Managers and workers in progressive
organizations are quality conscious.
• Quality and competitive advantage are linked.
– Total quality management (TQM)
• Comprehensive approach to continuous quality
improvement for a total organization.
• Creates context for the value chain.
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Study Question 5: What are continuing
management themes of the 21st century?
 Eight attributes of performance excellence:
– A bias toward action
– Closeness to the customer
– Autonomy and entrepreneurship
– Productivity through people
– Hands-on and value-driven
– Sticking to the knitting
– Simple form and lean staff
– Simultaneous loose-tight properties
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Figure 2.5 The organizational value chain.
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Study Question 5: What are continuing
management themes of the 21st century?
 Global awareness
– Pressure for quality and performance excellence is
created by a highly competitive global economy.
– Has promoted increasing interest in new management
concepts.
•
•
•
•
Process engineering
Virtual organizations
Agile factories
Network firms
– Adoption of Theory Z management practices.
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Study Question 5: What are continuing
management themes of the 21st century?
 Contemporary businesses must learn to become
learning organizations.
 Core ingredients of learning organizations:
– Mental models
– Personal mastery
– Systems thinking
– Shared vision
– Team learning
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Study Question 5: What are continuing
management themes of the 21st century?
 In the 21st century, managers must be:
– Global strategists
– Masters of technology
– Inspiring leaders
– Models of ethical behavior
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Chapter 2: Management -- Past and Present