Injections
Vocabulary
• Injection: To introduce a substance into
the body of an animal or plant by
mechanical means
• Intramuscular: Within the muscles
• Gauge: A scale of measurement (smaller
the gauge, bigger the needle, 16 vs 24)
• Subcutaneous: Situated or occurring
beneath the skin. A sub Q injection is put
just under the skin.
• Intravenous: Into a vein or veins
Vocabulary
• Peritoneal Cavity: Abdominal lining that
contains digestive organs of the animal
• Intraperitoneal: Within the cavity of the body
that contains the stomach and intestines
• Rumen: Largest compartment of the
stomach of cattle, sheep and goats. Bacterial
fermentation occurs here
• Intraruminal: Into the rumen
• Udder infusion: Into the udder, through teat.
Intramuscular
•
Intra: means into and the suffix after means
where. So intranasal would be into the nasal
cavity, intrauterine would be into the uterus, etc.
Intramuscular (IM):
• Most common type of injection (absorbed quickly)
• Given into any muscle that is large enough to
accommodate the amount of fluid being injected
• Usually injected into the large muscles such as
those in the thigh, rump or neck.
• Inject in neck of market animals. Prevents loss of
meat.
Intramuscular
Proper technique involves –
• Choosing the proper size and gauge needle
• Usually 1-1 ½” long needle
• 16-18 gauge are most frequent
Filling syringe:
• Read directions. Sometimes you need to shake
the bottle
• Insert through rubber portion of medicine bottle
• Pull back plunger, allow to fill to desired amount
• Pull needle out. Put syringe upright to tap out
air.
Intramuscular
Giving Injection:
• Restrain animal
• Clean injection sight with antiseptic
• Hold syringe by the hub with thumb and index
finger, with needle pointing downwards
• Light slapping momentarily numbs area. Tap 23 times then insert needle at 45-degree angle
firmly into the animal’s muscle on the next tap.
Pull back to make sure the needle is not in an
artery or vein
• Inject slowly. Remove directly and quickly to
not stress animal or further hurt animal.
Intramuscular
Precautions:
• Make sure you read directions. Wrong delivery
could possibly kill animal
• Large amounts of dosage should be spread to
more than one site
• Cattle: up to 15-20 ml
• Horses: up to 10-15
• Swine: up to 10-15
• Sheep/Goat: up to 5-10
Subcutaneous
Subcutaneous (Sub Q):
• Fluid is deposited directly beneath the skin.
Medication is absorbed slower than IM or OV.
Used for hormone and some drugs.
• Easier to make injection where there are folds
in the skin.
• Side of neck in cattle and horses
• Behind the ear in swine
• Upper leg in sheep
• Proper technique includes: Correct gauge,
usually 20-25, 5/8-1” needle, and cleanliness
Subcutaneous
Giving injection:
• Restrain animal
• Grasp skin firmly between thumb and
forefinger, and then thrust needle firmly and
quickly through all angles of skin and at a
relatively flat angle.
• Pull plunger back to make sure not in vein
• Administer slowly, remove needle, and
massage injection site. This hastens the
absorption of the medicine and prevents
leakage from the injection site. Slight bulge
evident under skin.
Subcutaneous
Precautions:
• Same as IM
• If in muscle, large swelling or abscess
can result
• Volume of solution tat may be injected
into one site:
– Cattle: 50-100ml
– Swine: 30ml
– Sheep/Goat: 2-30ml
Intravenous
Intravenous (IV):
• Fluid injected directly into bloodstream,
bypassing absorption site
• Most difficult to administer. Administered in the
jugular of large animals, ear in rabbits and
pigs, front leg in cats and dogs
Proper Technique:
• Restrain animal
• Choose proper size needle (18-20 gauge, 1-1
½” needle)
• Shaving hair from injection site is a good
practice and should be followed by disinfecting
the skin
Intravenous
Giving the Injection:
• Inject very slowly as they take into effect
immediately
• Injection made by constricting vein and
causing vein to swell. Digital pressure 2/3 way
down from injection site to obstruct blood flow
into one area. Vein is immediately obvious
between thumb and restriction. Stroke to make
more apparent if needed.
• With bevel point of needle pointed up insert at
30 degree angle into vein, blood will enter
syringe. Undo obstructions and slowly inject.
Intravenous
Precautions:
• Most dangerous to perform, should be
done by experienced persons
• Drug action takes place in 15-60 seconds
after injection
Injections
Other types of injections:
• Intraperitoneal (IP):
– Made through abdominal lining
– Difficult to administer properly and requires complete
restraint
• Intraruminal (IR):
– Made through left flank region into rumen
– Used in sheep and cattle to relieve bloat (Trokar also)
• Udder Infusion
– Used in dairy cattle especially to prevent and treat
mastitis
– Injected through teat