Anatomy and Physiology I
Muscles of
Facial Expression,
Mastication, and
Movement of the Head
Instructor: Mary Holman
www.bodyworlds.com
Dr. Gunther von Hagens
Plastination
Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Directional terms used to describe
orientation of muscle fibers to body
midline
•
•
•
Rectus - parallel to midline
Transverse - perpendicular to midline
Oblique - diagonal to midline
Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Size - Relative size of the muscle
• Maximus - largest
• Minimus - smallest
• Longus - long
• Brevis - short
• Latissimus - widest
• Longissimus - longest
• Magnus - large
• Major - larger
• Minor - smaller
• Vastus - great
Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Shape - Relative shape of the muscle
• Deltoid - triangular
• Trapezius - trapezoid
• Serratus - saw-toothed
• Rhomboideus - diamond-shaped
• Orbicularis - circular
• Pectinate - comb-like
• Piriformis - pear-shaped
• Platys - flat
•Quadratus - square
• Gracilis - slender
Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Action - Principle action of the muscle
Flexor - decreases joint angle
Extensor - increases joint angle
Abductor - moves bone away from midline
Adductor - moves bone toward midline
Levator - produces superior movement
Depressor - produces inferior movement
Supinator - Turns palm superiorly or anteriorly
Pronator - Turns palm inferiorly or posteriorly
Sphincter - decreases size of opening
Tensor - makes a body part rigid
Rotator - moves bone around longitudinal axis
Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Number of Origins
• Biceps - two origins
• Triceps - three origins
• Quadriceps - four origins
Location
• Example - frontalis
Origin and Insertion
• Example - Sternocleidomastoid
Important Terms of Muscle Action
Origin
Insertion
Agonist or Prime mover
Synergist
Antagonist
Muscles of Facial Expression
• Epicranius
Frontalis and Occipitalis
• Orbicularis oculi
• Orbicularis oris
• Buccinator
• Zygomaticus
major and minor
• Platysma
Fig. 9.25a
Muscles of Facial Expression
Frontalis
Epicranial
aponeurosis
Epicranius
Occipitalis
Orbicularis oculi
Zygomaticus
major
Zygomaticus
minor
Orbicularis oris
Buccinator
Platysma
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Occipitalis
Epicranius
Epicranial aponeurosis
Frontalis
Origin: Occipital Bone
Insertion: Skin/muscle
near eye
Action: Raises eyebrows
Fig. 9.25a
Orbicularis oculi
Origin: Maxillary and
frontal bones
Insertion: Skin around
eye
Action: Closes eye
Fig. 9.25a
Zygomaticus
major and minor
Origin:
Zygomatic bone
Insertion:
Orbicularis oris
major
minor
Fig. 9.25a
Action:
Raises corner of the
mouth
Orbicularis oris
Origin:
Muscles near mouth
Insertion:
Skin of lip
Action:
Closes/protrudes lips
Fig. 9.25a
Fig. 9.25b
Buccinator
Origin:
Outer surfaces of maxilla
and mandible
Insertion:
Orbicularis oris
Action:
Compresses cheeks inward
9.25a
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Risorius
Action: Abducts angle of the mouth
Platysma
Origin:
Fascia in upper chest
Insertion:
Lower border of mandible
Action:
Draws edges of mouth
down - pouting
Fig. 9.25a
Muscles of Mastication
•Temporalis
• Lateral Pterygoid
• Medial Pterygoid
• Masseter
9.25 b
Temporalis
Origin:
Temporal bone
Insertion:
Coronoid process and
anterior ramus of mandible
Action:
Elevates mandible
Fig. 9.25c
Lateral Pterygoid
lateral
medial
Origin:
Sphenoid bone
Insertion:
Anterior surface of
mandibular condyle
Action:
Depresses and protracts
mandible and moves it
side to side
Fig. 9.25c
Medial Pterygoid
lateral
medial
Origin:
Sphenoid, palatine and
maxillary bones
Insertion:
Medial surface of
mandible
Action:
Elevates mandible and
moves it side to side
Pterygoids
Masseter
Origin:
Lower border of zygomatic arch
Insertion:
Lateral surface of
mandible
Action:
Elevates mandible
Fig. 9.25a
Muscles that Move the Head
• Sternocleidomastoid
• Splenius capitis
• Semispinalis capitis
• Longissimus capitis
• Scalenes
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Anterior surface of
the sternum, upper surface
of the clavicle
Insertion:
Mastoid process of temporal
bone
Action:
Fig. 9.25a
Flexes neck, pulls head
to one side, elevates
sternum
Fig. 9.26
Splenius capitis
Origin: Spinous processes
of upper thoracic and lower
cervical vertebrae
Insertion:
Occipital bone & mastoid
process of temporal
Action:
Rotates head, bends head to
one side, or extends neck
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Fig. 9.26
Semispinalis capitis
Semispinalis capitis cut
Origin: Processes of upper
thoracic and lower cervical
vertebrae
Insertion:
Occipital bone
Action: Extends head, bends
head to one side, or rotates
head
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Fig. 9.26
Longissimus capitis
Origin: Upper thoracic and
lower cervical vertebrae
Insertion: Mastoid process
temporal bone
Action:
Extends and rotates head
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Scalenes
Atlas
Axis
Origin:
Transverse processes
cervical vertebrae 2-6
Insertion:
1st and 2nd ribs
Action: Flex head,
First Rib
Second Rib
elevate 1st and 2nd rib,
Laterally flex head, rotate
head to side
Frontalis
Temporalis
Orbicularis
oculi
Occipitalis
Orbicularis oris
Masseter
Zygomaticus
Buccinator
Risorius
Trapezius
Omohyoid
Sternocleidomastoid
2 = Frontalis
3 = Temporalis
7 = Orbicularis oculi
8 = Orbicularis oris
13 = Sternocleidomastoid
Zygomaticus minor
Zygomaticus major
Pink passion lipstick
Trapezius
Buccinator
Risorius