SKILLS & TECHNIQUES
OVERVIEW
Today and tomorrow we will…

Identify the main content

Investigate previous questions

Create a Skills and Techniques mind map

Structure our response to a question

Answer a question with our partner
Skills and Techniques
Cycle of Analysis
Analysis
Of
Overall
Performance
Reassess
Performance
Continue to
Develop
Identified
Weakness
Analysis of
Identified
Weakness
Plan long &
short term
targets
Progress
Check
Develop
Identified
weakness
Key Message - Can you tell me what you did at each stage?
How did we analyse our
performance?
1.
Observed video of model performer to
develop our knowledge and
understanding of effective court
movement and what makes a stroke
effective.
2.
Compared my court movement
during competitive games to that of
a model performer.
3.
Assessed the variety and effectiveness
of my strokes in a competitive game.
Discussed with my class teacher what
my main weakness was.
Analysis
Of
General
Performance
4.
5.
6.
Assessed the accuracy of overhead
clear in closed environment using
hoop test.
Analysis
Of
General
Performance
Assessed placement of overhead clear
during competitive game (open
environment) using scatter diagram.
Observed video of model performer
to develop knowledge and
understanding of the subroutines
involved.
Broke overhead clear down into
preparation, action, recovery.
Analysis of
Identified
Weakness
7.
Compared
overhead clear to
that of a model
performer using
movement analysis
observation
schedule.
Stop – Traffic Light

How to Collect Data Regarding Your Performance





Different methods of collecting initial data (on your whole game)
Different methods of collecting focussed data (on your specific weakness)
Why do we collect data
Why do we do it specific ways/why they are appropriate methods
How do these ways give accurate/valid data
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Possible Higher Questions

Describe two methods you used to gather information on your performance.

Select one of the following approaches. Describe how you gathered information about your
chosen skill or technique using this approach?
i. Mechanical Analysis
ii. Movement Analysis
iii. Consideration of quality
(4)

Describe, in detail, the methods you used to gather information on your level of
performance. Explain why these methods were appropriate.
(6)

Describe, briefly, how you gathered data/information about your performance in this
selected skill or technique. Give specific details of how your performance compared to that
of a model/skilled performance.
(6)

What information about your performance were you able to obtain using one of the following
methods of analysis?
i. Mechanical Analysis
ii. Movement Analysis
iii. Consideration of quality
(4)

Explain the benefits of considering a model/skilled performance when learning or
developing this skill or technique.
(4)
(4)
Intermediate 2 Questions

Describe one method you used to collect data about your whole
performance.
(4)

Now describe one method you used to collect data about a specific skill in
your performance.
(3)

Explain why both the above methods were appropriate.
(4)

Describe the methods you used to analyse the weakness identified in
Part (a).
(4)

How did you collect information on the skill or technique chosen Part (a)?
(4)

Using one of the following:
i. Mechanical Analysis
ii. Movement Analysis
iii. Consideration of quality
give details of how you gathered information on your chosen weakness.
(4)
How did identified weakness
effect performance?
Analysis of
Specific
Weakness
Plan long &
short term
targets
Identified from assessing variety and effectiveness of
strokes that overhead clear was a weakness.
What did you initially identify as being wrong?
Discuss what the information gathered by the Hoop Test
showed with regards the accuracy of your overhead clear.
Analysis of
Specific
Weakness
Discuss what the information gathered by the Scatter
Diagram told you about the placement of your overhead
clear shots.
Discuss what you discovered about your performance at the
preparation, action and recovery stages when you compared
yourself to a model performer.
Give specific performance examples to explain how the
factors identified at each of the above stages affected your
performance.
Plan long &
short term
targets
Stop – Traffic Light

How weakness effected Performance



Describe the skill and explain its purpose.
Explain what each of the specific observation schedules highlighted.
Explain why the skill was considered to be a weakness and how the
weakness effected your performance in games.
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Possible Questions

From your experience in one activity, describe a complex skill or technique
you have attempted to develop. Explain why you found this skill or technique
difficult to perform .
(4)

Discuss the results of the information gathered in Part (a) (analysis of
performance). Make specific reference to how your whole performance was
affected.
(6)
Intermediate 2 Questions





Describe the strengths and weaknesses in your performance.
(4)
Describe one skill or technique that you regard as a weakness
in your performance.
(4)
Describe your performance in relation to the skilled
performance in Part (a).
(4)
What effect did the skill or technique that was in need of
improvement have on your performance?
(4)
Choose a skill or technique that you found difficult to perform.
Describe the specific part(s) that you had difficulty with.
(4)
Stages of Skill Learning
Analysis of
Specific
Weakness
Plan long &
short term
targets
Cognitive
Planning
Associative
Practice
Autonomous
Automatic
Cognitive Stage
During the Cognitive Stage, you find out what
the skill involves – work out the subroutines.
Preparation
Action
Recovery
Even although some of the subroutines involved
in the skill maybe new, it does not mean that you
are at the beginner level in badminton.
Beginner Level
Badminton
Player
After establishing the different subroutines you make
your first attempts at learning the skill
Errors are likely to be common during the Cognitive Stage. As a
result of this you will need lots of advice and encouragement
Cognitive Stage
During the Cognitive Stage, I found out exactly what the overhead clear involved. To do this I
observed a model performing playing the stroke. I was then able to break the skill down into
three phases: 1. Preparation, 2. Action, 3. Recovery
This enabled me to identify each of the subroutines that make up the skill. By doing this I had a
clear understanding of the movements I had to perform in order to play an effective overhead clear.
Even although some of the subroutines involved in the overhead clear were new, I wasn’t a
badminton beginner, I had some previous experience of the activity.
After establishing the subroutines involved I made my first attempts at performing the skill by
shadowing the movements of a model performer. As my performance improved I attempted
different shadow practices which got progressively more difficult. It was important to ensure my
practice was progressive to keep the practices challenging and prevent boredom.
Shadow practice is an appropriate method of practice during the Cognitive Stage as it focuses
solely on learning the movements involved in the overhead clear. Also errors are common
during the Cognitive Stage, by removing the distraction of the shuttle I can reduce the number
of errors it’s possible to make and remove the need for a feeder.
By removing the need for a feeder I allow my partner to concentrate on providing me with verbal
feedback. During the Cognitive Stage it is important to receive plenty of positive feedback.
For the feedback to be effective, it needs to be given as soon as possible. For this reason I
had low work to rest ratios during shadow practice drills. During my initial shadow practice drill
my partner provided me with feedback after each overhead clear. As my performance
improved the feedback was given after 5 overhead clears. It was important that the feedback
was positive, giving negative feedback would not have been useful as it would fail to explain
how I could improve.
Associative Stage
During the Associative Stage you link together all the
subroutines and practice the skill using a variety of
practice methods.
Repetition Drills
Combination Drills
Pressure Drills
Appropriate practice will gradually reduce the
number of mistakes made during performance. As Difficulty of
performance improves the difficulty of practices will practice
gradually increase.
Performance Level
Your level of performance will determine how quickly you
progress through the practices. To ensure you move on
at the correct time you could have specific success
criteria to achieve before you move on.
To avoid boredom and ensure high quality practice it is important to vary
your practice. If you repeat the same thing over and over again you will
become bored, disinterested and your level of performance will decrease.
During the Associative Stage I linked together all the subroutines involved in the overhead clear and practiced the
skill by using a variety of different practice methods.
Repetition Practice
Combination Practice
Pressure Drills
By completing a varied programme of practice sessions I was able to gradually reduce the number of errors I
made when performing the overhead clear. To ensure progression in my practice sessions I increased the
difficulty of the practices as my level of performance improved.
For example initially I used Repetition Drills which involved my partner feeding the shuttle high above me so I
could play an overhead clear. At first I started in the back tramlines but as my performance improved I had to
move from base to the rear of the court to return the shuttle.
After focussing on repetition practice my level of performance had improved to such an extent that I progressed to
using Combination Practices. This involved playing another stroke in addition to my overhead clear. For
example initially I worked with two feeders. One fed the shuttle to the rear of the court allowing me to return with
an overhead clear, the other dropped the shuttle over the net forcing me to play a net shot before returning to the
rear to play another overhead clear.
As I was moving towards the Autonomous Stage I started to use Pressure Drills. Initially I used repetition
pressure drills which required me to repeatedly perform overhead clears while under pressure. As my
performance improved I progressed to using combination pressure drills, which required me to perform my
overhead clear along with a net shot in pressured situations.
By varying my sessions and having clear progression routes between practice methods I kept my motivation
levels up avoiding the onset of boredom. To avoid fatigue I ensured I had adequate rest, my work to rest ration
was usually 1:3. When performing I would never have to perform more than 10/15 shots without a break.
Methods of Practice
Stages of Skill
Learning
Methods of Practice
Principles of effective
practice
Feedback
Associative Stage
Repetition Drills
Work/rest ratio
Progression
External VERBAL feedback.
Internal INTRINSIC feedback
Repetition Drills
Repetition practice involves setting up drills which require you to repeatedly practice a particular
part of the overhead clear or the whole technique itself.
For example our initial repetition drill involved your partner feeding the shuttle high above you so
you could play an overhead clear. At first you started in the back tramlines meaning you didn’t
have to move into position (repeatedly practiced the action + recovery phases). As
performance improved you had to move from base to the rear of the court to return the shuttle.
During repetition practice the intention is to grove the skill. It is vital that movements are performed
repeatedly until the movement is grooved into the muscles memory.
Work to Rest Ratio
In order to groove the skill it is vital that the skill is performed repeatedly, however for practice to be
effective you need to consistently perform the skill to a high level. For this reason it is vital to
ensure adequate work to rest ratios are used. For example 10 overhead clears would not be
enough, but 30 would be to many so you would perform 3 sets of 10.
Methods of Practice
Stages of Skill
Learning
Methods of Practice
Principles of effective
practice
Feedback
Associative Stage
Combination Practice
Work/rest ratio
Progression
External VERBAL feedback.
Internal INTRINSIC feedback
Combination Practice
Combination practice involves setting up drills which require you to link your overhead clear with
other shots to play a specific sequence of shots.
For example our initial combination drill required two feeders. Feeder 1 dropped the shuttle over
the net, bringing you into the net to play a net shot. Feeder 2 on the other hand served high to
the rear tramlines allowing you to play an overhead clear. As performance improved the
practices became more game like. A later stage of the practice involved three feeders. Feeder
1 served to the back left of the court, feeder 2 played a drop shot and feeder three served to
the back right hand corner.
During combination practices the aim is to continually play the cycle of shots effectively a set
number of times. If any errors occur, for example a poor feed, you would stop and restart from
the beginning. This is more effective than carrying on with a broken practice – playing the
wrong shot or playing a shot incorrectly.
Methods of Practice
Stages of Skill
Learning
Methods of Practice
Principles of effective
practice
Feedback
Associative Stage
Pressure Drills
Work/rest ratio
Progression
External VERBAL feedback.
Internal INTRINSIC feedback
Pressure Drills
Once the movement patterns of the overhead clear have been established and your performance
of the skill has begun to move towards the Autonomous Stage it is important to increase the
pressure to ensure the demands of practice are specific to your performance level and that
practice becomes increasingly more game like. Pressure can be gradually increased as your
level of performance increases. The chances of a skill becoming automatic are greatly
increased after pressure training.
Initially we used repetition pressure drills which required you to repeatedly perform overhead clears
while under pressure from two feeders. Pressure was increased by decreasing the time
interval between feeds forcing you to move to and from base quicker – reducing the time you
had to move into position.
As your performance improved we progressed to using combination pressure drills, which required
you to perform an overhead clear along with a net shot in pressured situations.
Autonomous Stage
At the Autonomous Stage the majority of subroutines have
become automatic. They have been grooved to muscle
memory. As a result, little attention is paid to them.
During the overhead clear this may mean that you track
the path of the shuttle, adopt a side on stance with your
weight on your back foot – transfer your weight forward,
impact with shuttle above racquet arm – bring racquet
down across body and recover to base.


Preparation
Action
Recovery



As you are able to perform the subroutines of the
overhead clear automatically you are able to pay closer
attention to the flight path of the shuttle and where on
your opponents court the shuttle lands.
To ensure practice is specific to your skill level and realistic to the unpredictable nature
of badminton conditioned games are the most effective way of further refining your
overhead clear. Conditioned games can take various forms, often they are used to
provide one player with an advantage or rules are adapted to emphasis particular
skills.
Methods of Practice
Stages of Skill
Learning
Autonomous Stage
Methods of Practice
Conditioned games
Principles of effective
practice
Feedback
Work/rest ratio
Progression
External VERBAL
feedback.
Internal INTRINSIC
feedback
Conditioned Games
Conditioned games are essentially adapted forms of the activity. They can
take various forms. Often they are used to provide an individual or team
with an advantage over their opponents, this makes achieving tasks easier.
Conditioned games may also involve certain adaptations to the rules of the
game to emphasise the particular skills that you have been working on
developing.
Give Three Examples of conditioned games
Stages of
Skill
Learning
Methods of
Practice
Principles
of effective
practice
Feedback
Shadow Practice
Work/rest ratio
Specific Targets
Progression
External verbal
feedback.
Repetition Drills
Associative
Combination Drills
Stage
Pressure Drills
Work/rest ratio
Specific Targets
Progression
External verbal,
written, video
feedback.
Internal feedback
Autonomo
us Stage
Work/rest ratio
Specific
Progression
External verbal,
written, video
feedback.
Internal feedback
Cognitive
Stage
Conditioned
games
Stop – Traffic Light

Stages of Learning





Cognitive Stage/ Associative Stage/Autonomous Stage
What each stage is
What your performance would be like at each stage
What practices would you do at each stage
How do you move up a stage
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Possible Higher Questions

Describe some of the features that can be identified at each of the stages of
skill learning.
Give specific examples from the chosen activity.
(6)

When learning and developing a skill, it is important to work through the
three stages of learning. These are:
 The preparation / cognitive stage
 The practice / associative stage
 The automatic / autonomous stage
Explain what you understand about each stage.
(6)

Discuss why it is appropriate to use different methods of practice at two
different stages of learning. Give examples from your programme of work
to support your answer.
(6)
Intermediate 2 Questions

When learning a new skill or techniques you would have
been performing at the cognitive (preparation) stage of
learning. Identify methods of practice suitable to this stage
of learning. Explain why they are appropriate.
(4)
Programme of Work
Monitor
Progress
Develop
Identified
weakness
Plan long &
short term
targets
Stages of
Skill
Learning
Methods of
Practice
Principles
of effective
practice
Feedback
Shadow Practice
Work/rest ratio
Specific Targets
Progression
External verbal
feedback.
Repetition Drills
Associative
Combination Drills
Stage
Pressure Drills
Work/rest ratio
Specific Targets
Progression
External verbal,
written, video
feedback.
Internal feedback
Autonomo
us Stage
Work/rest ratio
Specific
Progression
External verbal,
written, video
feedback.
Internal feedback
Cognitive
Stage
Conditioned
games
Gradual Build Up
Gradual
Build Up
Conditioned
Stage 5
Games
Pressure
Stage Drills
4
Combination
Stage 3
Practice
Repetition
Stage 2
Practice
Shadow
Stage 1
Practice
Skills & Techniques
Revision Notes
Shadow
Feeder
Repetition Drills

Combination Drills
Pressure drills



Pressure Drills
Conditioned Games

Gradual Build Up

During the learning process

Whole-Part-Whole

Used to fix small parts of technique
in the automatic stage






Week 1 and 2
(cognitive/ preparation stage moving
into associative/ practice stage)
Week 3 and 4
(associative/ practice stage)
Week 5 and 6
(autonomous/ automatic stage)
Stop – Traffic Light

Methods of Practice





Shadow/Feeder/Repetition Drills/ Combination Drills/Pressure
drills/Conditioned Games/ Gradual Build Up / Whole-Part-Whole/
Know what each of these are
Be able to describe them
Be able to give practical example of each
Be able to discuss a training programme for your weakness
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Principles of Effective
Principles
of
Effective
Practice
Principles
of
Training
Does not equal
They are not the same
Work / Rest Ratio
Progression
Difficulty
of practice
Performance Level
Principles of Effective
Think….
SMART
Specific
– To stage of skill learning
Measureable
– Targets which you can measure to check for
improvement/ensure progress at correct time. Allows you to
monitor programme to.
Achievable
– Practice must be challenging but achievable to keep you
motivated. Problematic if to easy/difficult
Realistic
– Keep practice related to demands of whole
performance/activity (game like). By doing this makes it
easier to transfer improvements into activity.
Time
– Ensure appropriate work to rest ratio to ensure high level
of performance, avoid fatigue / injury.
Stop – Traffic Light

Principles of Effective Practice




Explain that the two principles you took into consideration were Work/Rest
Ratio and Progression.
Explain how you applied them using the anagram SMART
Explain the term that each letter of anagram represents
Give practical examples from programme of work for each of the terms
Key Message - Can you tell me?

Describe the programme of work that you followed to develop this skill or technique.

Outline the programme of work that you followed to develop your performance in this skill
or technique. Explain why this programme of work was appropriate.
(6)

Describe, in detail, two methods of practice you used and considered important to develop
this skill or technique.
(6)

In relation to your current performance, describe in detail a programme of that would be
appropriate to develop the skill or technique identified.
(6)

Describe, in detail, a programme of work you used to develop this skill or technique. Give
examples of how the principles of effective practice were applied in the programme.
(6)

Describe, in detail, two different methods of practice you used to develop your
performance of the skill or technique identified. Explain why you considered each of the
practice methods selected to be appropriate.
(6)

From the information gathered, briefly describe a programme of work you used to develop
this skill technique. Explain why it is important to review your programme.
(6)
(4)

Discuss how the principles of effective practice were applied to the
programme.
(6)

Explain, in detail, the principles you took into account when using these methods
of practice to ensure your programme was effective.

Explain in detail, what you understand about the principles of effective practice
when developing skill and/or refining technique.
(5)

Describe, in detail, a programme of work you used to develop this skill or
technique. Give examples of how the principles of effective practice were
applied in the programme.
(6)
Intermediate 2 Questions

Describe, in detail, an improvement programme you used to develop your skills and
techniques.
(5)

Select a skill or technique you found difficult to perform. Describe two methods of practice
you used to develop this skill or technique. Give specific examples.
(4)

Describe two methods of practice you used to develop the skill or technique you identified as
a weakness in Part (a).
(4)

Describe how you planned a programme of improvement.

Describe two methods of practice you used to develop your skill or technique chosen in Part
(a). Give examples of the practices used.
(5)

To further develop the skill or technique, outline a programme of work.

Describe in detail an improvement programme you used to develop a skill or technique which
you found difficult to perform.
(5)

What methods of practice did you use to develop this skill or technique? Give examples.
(4)
(4)
(4)
Intermediate 2 Questions

Explain how you used the principles of effective
practice when developing your skill or technique.
(4)

Within your programme of work, what principles of
effective practice did you consider? How did they
help you develop your skill or technique.
(4)

How did you make sure your programme of work
was effective?
(4)

How did you make sure the practice was effective?
Reassessing our performance
Reassess
Performance
1.
Describe how you reassessed your performance using all three
specific observation schedules under the same conditions. Explain
briefly why it was important to retest under same conditions.
2.
Explain the improvements shown in
Hoop Test – improved accuracy
Scatter Diagram – more at rear of court, better use of space
Movement analysis observation schedule – how has performance
improved at Preparation, Action, Recovery stages
3.
Describe how your performance has altered during competitive
games what are you now more able to do that you couldn’t
previously.
• Outmanoeuvre opponent – play shuttle front to back
• Tactically link overhead clear with other shots
• Use overhead clear as defensive shot when under pressure
• When opponent is close to net – play flat attacking
•
overhead clear
At autonomous stage – subroutine automatoc - can focus
on shot placement and disguise
Stop – Traffic Light

Reassessing performance





Describe how you reassessed your performance at end of development
programme.
Explain what you discovered from each observation schedule
Explain how performance of overhead clear had improved
Explain how overall badminton performance improved as result of improved
overhead clear
Identify future development need
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Possible Questions

Having developed your skill or technique in practice, discuss why your
performance may still not be effective when applying this skill or technique
during whole performance.
(4)

Having developed this skill/technique, discuss the effect that this has had on
your whole performance.
(4)

Explain how your whole performance was affected on completion of this
programme of work.
(4)
Intermediate 2 Questions

Describe the changes to your whole performance, after
completing your improvement programme.
(4)

What effect did the methods of practice have on your whole
performance?
(4)

How did the improvement programme help your whole
performance?
(4)

How did you monitor the effect these practices had on your
whole performance?
(4)




Feedback
Purpose of Feedback.
 Enables you to identify your strengths and weaknesses.
 Helps plan improvements to your performance.
 Provides reinforcement about the successful parts of your performance.
 Positive feedback increases your motivation and encourages you to work
towards further improving your performance.
Feedback
There are two main categories of feedback:
1. Internal (Intrinsic) Feedback.
2. External (Extrinsic) Feedback.
Internal
External
Ways we receive external feedback
1.
Written
2.
Visual
3.
Verbal
Examples of this within programme of
1.
Cognitive Stage
2.
Associative Stage
3.
Automatic
(Intrinsic)
(Extrinsic)
work
- Verbal
- Visual - Model performer/video
- Written – Model performer
comparison/scatter diagram
Motivation



Motivation is your level of desire to succeed. You need to be motivated in order to
improve your level of performance.
Your aim is to optimise your motivation for the practice session you are
undertaking.
The most common distinction is whether your motivation is Internal (intrinsic) or
External (extrinsic)
Having only one form of motivation is rare in sport. Commonly
both internal and external motivation are involved.
For example in Physical Education…….
Motivation
Internal
(Intrinsic)
External
(Extrinsic)
Internal motivation comes through a genuine desire to improve your performance.
(You will have picked PE because you enjoy it, you participate in a particular activity because you enjoy it)
External motivation comes through wishing to achieve a better practical grade or using
your overall qualification to gain entry to college or university.
Motivation – Goal Setting

You can use goal setting to keep you motivated and ensure that you
perform at your highest level
Setting goals is a good way of keeping you motivated.
Why… I you set yourself a goal your external motivation will more than likely increase.

Goal setting involves you setting challenging yet achievable targets
which are specific to your level of performance.
For example… In Golf you may set a target of trying to only two putt on any green. Once this
has been achieved you could increase the difficulty by having to one putt on four greens and two putt
on the remaining holes.
Question
Give an example of how you used goal setting in a
badminton practice you undertook.
Stop – Traffic Light

Feedback, Motivation and Concentration





Explain how you took feedback and motivation into consideration
Name the types of feedback you received
Link types of feedback and methods used to receive feedback to programme
of work and stage of skill learning
Explain how you took motivation into consideration
Explain how you used goal setting to maintain motivation
Key Message - Can you tell me?
Possible Higher Questions


From the list below, select one of the factors that are influential in skill
development. Discuss how the factor chosen affected the development of
your skill or technique during practice.
(4)
i. Motivation
ii. Feedback
iii. Anxiety
iv. Concentration
v. Confidence
Select two of the influential factors listed below.
i. Motivation
ii. Feedback
iii. Concentration
Explain what you understand about each factor.
(6)
Intermediate 2 Questions

Choose one of the factors from the list below.
Motivation
Concentration
Feedback
Explain why it was important in the development of the skill or technique in
your performance.
(4)

Choose one of the following factors
Motivation
Concentration
Feedback
Explain the importance of this factor in your performance.

Describe how you used one of the following during your programme.
Motivation
Feedback
Concentration
(4)
(4)
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