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The Skeleton:
Bones and Joints
The Skeleton
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Skeletal system is made up of bones, joints, and supporting
connective tissue
Bones
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Several functions
• To serve as a firm framework for the body
• To protect delicate structures such as the brain and
spinal cord
• To serve as levers to produce movement
• To store calcium salts
• To produce blood cells
Bone (osseous) tissue
• Types
• Compact bone
• Haversion systems (osteons)
• Spongy (cancellous) bone
• Bone marrow
• Red marrow
• Yellow marrow
• Bone membranes
• Periosteum
• Endosteum
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Bone Structure
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The skeleton
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The structure of a long
bone.
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Compact bone tissue
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Bone tissue, longitudinal section
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Checkpoint 6-1: A long bone has a long narrow shaft and two
irregular ends. What are the scientific names for the shaft and
the ends of a long bone?
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Shaft
 Diaphysis
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Ends
 Proximal epiphysis
 Distal epiphysis
Checkpoint 6-2: What are the two types of osseus (bone)
tissue and where is each type found?
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Spongy (cancellous) bone
 Found in the ends (epiphyses) of long bones
 Flat bones
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Compact bone
 Shafts of long bones
 Outer layers of flat bones
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Bone Growth and Repair
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Types of bone cells
• Osteoblasts manufacture the matrix
• Osteocytes maintain and repair existing bone
matrix
• Osteoclasts resorb bone tissue
Checkpoint 6-3: What are the three types of
cells found in bone and what is the role of
each?
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Osteocytes
 Maintain and repair bone existing bone matrix
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Osteoblasts
 Manufacture bone matrix
Osteoclasts
 Resorb (break down) bone matrix
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Bones begin as cartilage in the embryo
Cartilage begins to turn into bone
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Epiphyseal plates develop across bone ends
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Bone growth takes place in epiphyseal plate
Bones continue to lengthen
Bones stop lengthening
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Osteoblasts build up bony matrix
When epiphyseal plates (cartilage) turns to bone,
they stop lengthening
Bone resorption and formation continues
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Bone continues to be modeled (shaped)
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Checkpoint 6-4: As the embryonic skeleton
is converted from cartilage to bone, the
intercellular matrix becomes hardened.
What compounds are deposited in the
matrix to harden it?
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Calcium compounds
Checkpoint 6-5: After birth, long bones
continue to grow in length at secondary
centers. What are these centers called?
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Epiphyses
Epiphyseal plate
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Projections
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Head
Process
Condyle
Crest
Spine
Depressions or holes
Foramen
 Sinus
 Fossa
 Meatus
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Checkpoint 6-6: Bones have a number of
projections, depressions, and holes. What
are some functions of these markings?
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Projections
 Help form joints and serve as muscle attachments
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Depressions
 Serve as muscle attachments
Holes
 Serve as passageways for nerves and blood vessels
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Axial skeleton—80 bones of the head and
trunk
Appendicular skeleton—126 bones of the
extremities
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Cranial bones
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Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Occipital
Facial bones
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Mandible
Maxillae
Zygomatic
Nasal
Lacrimal
Vomer
Palatine
Inferior nasal conchae
Ossicle
Hyoid
Infant skull
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Fontanels
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The skull.
ZOOMING IN • What
type of joint is between
bones of the skull?
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Sutures
The skull, inferior view.
ZOOMING IN • What two bones
make up each side of the hard
palate?
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Maxilla and palatine bones
Floor of cranium,
superior view.
ZOOMING IN • What is a
foramen?
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A hole in a bone
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The skull, sagittal section.
Infant skull, showing fontanels.
ZOOMING IN • Which is the largest
fontanel?
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Anterior fontanel
Vertebral column
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Cervical vertebrae (7)
Thoracic vertebrae (12)
Lumbar vertebrae (5)
Sacral vertebrae (sacrum) (4 fused)
Coccygeal vertebrae (coccyx) (3 fused)
Thorax
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Sternum
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Manubrium
Clavicular notch
Sternal angle
Xiphoid process
Ribs
 True ribs (1-7)
 False ribs (8-12)
 Floating ribs (11-12)
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Vertebral column,
left lateral view.
ZOOMING IN • From an anterior
view, which group(s) of vertebrae
form a convex curve?
Cervical and lumbar
Thoracic, sacrum and
coccyx
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Which
group(s) form a concave curve?
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The vertebral column and vertebrae.
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The first two cervical vertebrae
ZOOMING IN • To what bones do the costal cartilages attach?
Sternum, ribs
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Bones of the thorax, anterior view
Checkpoint 6-7: The axial skeleton consists
of the bones of the skull and the trunk. What
bones make up the skeleton of the trunk?
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Vertebral column, ribs, sternum
Checkpoint 6-8: What are the five regions of
the vertebral column?
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Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
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Two divisions
Upper
Lower
The shoulder girdle
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Clavicle (collarbone)
Scapula (shoulder blade)
 Supraspinous fossa and infraspinous fossa
 Acromion
 Glenoid cavity
 Coracoid process
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The upper extremity
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Humerus (arm bone)
 Medial and lateral epicondyles
 Trochlea
 Capitellum
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Ulna (forearm bone)
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Distal projection (styloid process)
Head (distal)
Olecranon
Trochlear notch (semilunar notch)
Radius (lateral forearm bone)
 Head (proximal end)
Carpal bones (wrist)
Metacarpal bones (palm)
 Phalanges (finger bones)
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ZOOMING IN • What does the prefix supra mean?
What does the prefix infra mean?
Above
Below
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The shoulder girdle and scapula
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The right humerus
ZOOMING IN •What is the lateral bone of the
forearm?
Radius
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Radius and ulna of the right forearm
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Movements of the forearm
ZOOMING IN •What part of what bone forms the bony prominence of the
elbow?
The olecranon process of the ulna
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Left elbow, lateral view
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Bones of the right hand, anterior view
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The pelvic bones (ossa coxae)
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Ilium
 Iliac crest
 Anterior superior iliac spine
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Ischium
 Ischial spine
 Ischial tuberosity
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Pubis
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Features of pelvis
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Acetabulum
Obturator foramen
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 Pubic symphysis
ZOOMING IN • What bone is nicknamed the “sit bone”?
Ischium
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The pelvic bones
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Comparison of male and female pelvis, anterior view
The lower extremity
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Femur (thigh)
 Greater trochanter
 Lesser trochanter
 Linea aspera
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Patella (kneecap)
Tibia (shin bone of leg)
 Medial malleolus
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Fibula (leg bone)
 Lateral malleolus
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Tarsal bones (ankle)
 Calcaneus (heel bone)
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Metatarsal bones (instep)
Phalanges (toe bones)
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The right femur
(thigh bone)
Tibia and fibula of
the right leg
ZOOMING IN • What is the
medial bone of the leg?
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Tibia
ZOOMING IN •Which tarsal bone is the heel bone? Calcaneous
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Bones of the right foot
Checkpoint 6-9: What division of the skeleton
consists of the bones of the shoulder girdle, hip,
and extremities?
Appendicular
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Bones undergo significant changes
Loss of calcium salts
Decrease in protein
Reduction in collagen
Loss of height
Decrease in chest diameter
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Classified by material between adjoining bones
and by degree of movement permitted
Fibrous
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Cartilaginous
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Synarthrosis (immovable)
Amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)
Synovial
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Diarthrosis (freely movable)
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Checkpoint 6-10: What are the three types of
joints classified according to the type of
material between the adjoining bones?
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Fibrous
Cartilaginous
Synovial
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Structures that support and protect synovial
joints
Ligaments
 Joint capsule
 Hyaline (articular) cartilage
 Fat
 Bursae
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Structure of a synovial
joint
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The knee joint, sagittal section
Classified by types of movement they allow
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Gliding
 Bones of the wrist and ankle
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Hinge
 Elbow, interphalangeal joints
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Pivot
 Joint between C-1 and C-2, proximal radio-ulnar joint
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Condyloid
 2nd-5th metacarpo-phalangeal joints (knuckles)
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Saddle
 Ist metacarpo-phalangeal joint (thumb)
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Ball-and-socket
 Hip, shoulder
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Movements characteristic of forearm and ankle
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Supination
Pronation
Inversion
Eversion
Dorsiflexion
Plantar flexion
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Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Circumduction
Rotation
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Movements at synovial joints
Checkpoint 6-11: What is the most freely
movable type of joint?
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Ball and socket
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