Aim of today’s lesson:- To
perform skin analysis
By the end of today you will be able to:• State the reason for performing a
skin analysis
• Define a comedone, pustule and a
• List the contra indications to a facial
• Demonstrate a skin analysis and
identify the clients skin type
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Skin Analysis
When carrying out a
skin analysis you
should consider the
following 3 points:
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Use the magnifying light to look for
characteristics and conditions to guide you
in making a decision as to the client’s skin
type. You would also look for areas that are
showing signs of ageing.
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Using you fingers touch the client’s skin to
feel the texture of the skin, muscle tone,
elasticity, skin tone, amount of subcutaneous
tissue and sebaceous secretions.
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Determine their skin care routine, the type of
products they are using and for what skin type and
finally if they have any problems with their skin. It
is important that you get the client’s point of view!
Questions to ask:
Have you had a facial before?
How long has it been since your last facial?
How was your skin after your last facial?
Have you noticed any problems with your skin?
Have you noticed any areas of dryness/oiliness?
What is the main reason for you having a facial today?
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It is vital that you assess the skin
correctly, otherwise incorrect products and
pressure could be applied resulting in an
ineffective treatment. It is also important
that you find out the clients requirements
from the treatment i.e. just because the
client has blackheads do not automatically
presume that they want them extracting.
Clare Hargreaves-Norris
The products/frequency that the client is using
them can affect the current skin condition. It is
important that you gain information on the client’s
skin care routine and the products used. Do not
presume that if the client is cleansing, toning and
moisturising that the skin care routine is perfect
as they may be using the wrong products or
applying them incorrectly.
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Skin Conditions
Characteristics of the
seven different skin
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The different skin conditions
Papules & pustules
Open pores
Dilated capillaries
Spider Naevi - Broken
Ephelides (freckles)
Hyper pigmentationChloasmata,
Hypo pigmentation –
Vitiligo, Albinism
Port wine stain
Strawberry marks
Pseudo folliculitis
Ingrowing hairs
Malignant Melanomas
Psoriasis, eczema, contact
Skin tags
Dark circles
Crows feet
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This is the technical term for a
blackhead. Comedones most
commonly accompany an oily or
combination skin. They are caused
by an overproduction of sebum
blocking the pore and when the
sebum encounters oxygen the
oxidising effect starts to darken
the sebum, turning it into a black
dot. Make-up and dirt may also
block the pore making the
comedone look even darker.
Comedones are extracted by gently
squeezing between fingers
protected by tissues or by using a
comedone extractor.
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Papules and pustules
Papules are red spots caused by
inflammation of the sebaceous gland.
Pustules are yellow spots also caused
by inflammation of the sebaceous
glands; however, infection is also
present, in the form of bacteria.
They commonly occur on oily and
combinations skins due to the
overactive sebaceous glands.
However, they can occur on other
skin types as hormonal imbalances
(often due to the menstrual cycle or
stress) can cause them to appear.
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Open Pore
The pores are more visible and appear
enlarged. Open pores are common on oily
areas of the skin. Once the pores have
enlarged they can never return to normal
size, so you will often see open pores on
mature skins or on skins that have previously
been oily or combination. Do not presume
that just because the pores are open that
the skin is oily, as this is a common mistake.
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These are often present on a
dry skin and are caused by
overproduction of dry skin
cells causing a blockage of the
sebaceous gland. They appear
as a small white pearl under
the skins surface, often
around the eye or cheek
areas. Exfoliating and
applying moisturiser on a
regular basis can loosen milia.
Alternatively, a qualified
therapist can use a sterile
needle to pierce the skin and
extract the milia.
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Broken Capillaries
Dehydrated, dry and sensitive skins often have thin skin
that provides less protection and therefore, these skin
types are the most commonly effected. Common causes of
broken capillaries are:
Hot conditions.
Wind blowing on the face.
Burning i.e. sunburn.
Moving from one extreme temperature to another.
Pressure i.e. squeezing spots or glasses pressing on the face.
Broken capillaries can be prevented by avoiding all of the
above. Once formed they can be treated by a specialist
form of electrolysis. There are also specialist creams on
the market that aim to strengthen the capillary walls thus
reducing the redness.
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Hyper Pigmentation
This is when the skin has areas of
darker coloured skin – it has
increased pigment production. In
general the darker the skin the
more pigment is present. The
colour of the skin is influenced by
the amount of melanin being
produced. Hyper pigmentation is
common during pregnancy due to
hormonal influences and also in old
age when people develop liver spots
(sometimes referred to as age
spots). To prevent pigmentation
patches occurring, advise the use
of a sun block. Darker patches of
skin can be disguised by the use of
a concealer.
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Hypo Pigmentation
This is when the skin has
areas of paler coloured skin –
it has decreased pigment
production. A common
medical condition that would
display paler patches of skin
is vitiligo. Hypo pigmentation
can be disguised with the use
of a concealer. Also advise
the client to use a sun block
to protect against burning
caused by the sun’s rays.
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Pseudo Folliculitis
This is inflammation of the
hair follicles due to bacterial
or fungal infections. The area
around hair follicles looks
inflamed and acne-like, and
often extrudes puss. It can
occur in all skin and hair
types and is not always
related to shaving.
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A keloid is a scar that does not know
when to stop growing. When the skin is
injured, cells grow back to fill in the
gap. In a keloid scar, the cells keep on
reproducing, the result being overgrown
scar tissue that looks shiny and is often
dome-shaped. They can range in colour
from slightly pink to red or dark brown.
They feel hard and thick and are always
raised above the surrounding skin.
People of African or Asian descent are
more likely to develop Keloids than
people with lighter skin. This condition
can be treated by surgery, laser,
cortisone injections or freezing.
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Ingrowing Hairs
Ingrowing hairs are basically hairs that are trapped below the
skin surface and there are 3 different types that can develop:
A coiled ingrowing hair - this appears as a black dot or dome in
the skin.
An infected ingrowth - this would usually have a pustular
raised head, contained within would be the ingrowing hair.
A flat hair growing underneath the skin - this would look like a
small thread and can be released with tweezers or a sterile
needle by piercing the skin gently to release the hair at the
root end.
Ingrowing hairs can occur due to dead skin cells building up
over the hair follicle. This is common after shaving or waxing
an area. The client should be advised to exfoliate and
moisturise regularly to prevent ingrowing hairs.
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Inflammation of the skin caused by
contact, internally, externally with an
irritant. Redding of the skin with swelling
and blisters. Blisters leak fluid which
create scabs.
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Patches of red, itchy, flaky skin covered in
waxy, silvery scales. Found on the elbows,
knees, lower back and scalp.
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Contra indications to facials
Skin disorders- Acne vulgaris, Acne Rosecea, weeping
eczema, furuncles(boils)
Skin diseases – Impetigo,, sebaceous cysts, Herpes Simplex
(cold sore), Herpes Zoster (shingles), scabies, Ringworm
Eye disorders – Conjunctivitis, sty's
Bruising to area
Recent Operations
Scar tissue (less than 6 months old)
Fracture, broken bones
Inflammation or swelling to the area
Allergic reaction – hives
Broken skin, cuts and abrasions
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An inflammatory disease of the surface of
the skin. Skin appears red and itchy, then
small thin walled blisters appear. These
burst and form into yellow crusts. Very
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Skin analysis chart
Open pores,
papules, expression
open pores,
papules, broken
bumpy texture
Muscle Tone: Good
Skin Texture: Coarse on T-zone
Elasticity: Good
Skin Type: Combination
Eye Area
Expression lines,
milia ,dark circles
Cheeks & Sides of
Broken capillaries,
tight pores, dry
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Skin analysis chart
Muscle Tone:
Skin Texture:
Skin Type: Mature
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Skin analysis chart
Muscle Tone:
Skin Texture:
Skin Type: combination
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