Muscles Origins and
Insertions
Muscles from pg. 44-45 in text
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Sternocleidomastoid
Agonist
Flexes and
rotates the
head
Sternum
Clavicle
Mastoid
process
Broad superficial muscle
running up each side of the
neck
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Splenius
Runs posterior
joins skull and
spine
Agonist
Flexes and rotates
the head
Cervical &
thoracic
vertebrae
Temporal
&occipital lobes
Neck Muscles
Thoracic Cage Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Longissimus
Lateral to spinalis
Agonist
Laterally Flexes
and extends the
spine
Cervical,
Thoracic,
Lumbar
vertebrae
Mastoid
process &
cervical
vertebrae
Spinalis
Most medial
attaches to
vertebrae
Agonist
Laterally Flexes
and extends the
spine
Cervical,
Thoracic,
Lumbar
vertebrae
Mastoid
process &
cervical
vertebrae
Illiocostalis
Most lateral
Agonist
Laterally Flexes
and extends the
spine
Saccrum,
Lumbar
vertebrae,
Ribs
Cervical
vertebrae
&
Ribs
Back Muscles
Thoracic Cage Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Diaphragm
Agonist
Anatomical Divider
Decreases
pressure in the
thoracic cavity
Sternum,
Ribs,
Lumbar
vertebrae
Central tendon
Intercostals
Muscles in
between ribs
Agonist
Elevates,
Depresses ribs
Inferior
aspect of all
ribs
Superior aspect
of all ribs
Transverse
Thoracis
Triangle muscles
under ab wall
Agonist
Pulls abdominal
wall invward
Sternum,
Xiphoid
process
Cartilidge of
ribs 2-6
Thoracic Cage
Abdominal Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Rectus Abdominus Agonist
Wash board look
Flex trunk,
Aids in some
expiration
Child birth
Symphysis
Xiphoid
pubis & pubic Process
crest
Inferior ribs
External Obliques
Agonist
Flex and rotate the Lower eight
vertebral column
ribs
Iliac Crest,
Pubis
Quadratus
Lumborum
Deep muscle
Agonist
Extend and
laterally bends the
vertebral column
12th Rib and
upper lumbar
vertebrae
Iliac Crest
and Lumbar
vertebra
Insertion
Abdominals
Moving Upper Limb
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Pectoralis
Major
Thick Muscles
covering the
chest
Prime
Mover
Internal rotation,
adduction and
flexion of the arm
Clavicle,
Sternum,
Costal
cartilage of
first 6 ribs.
Intertubercular
groove
Latissimus Dorsi
“Lats”
V shape
Prime
Mover
Adductor,
Extensor and
internal rotator of
the arm
Lower
Humerus
Thoracic and
Lumber verts.
Iliac Crest and
sacrum
Rotator Cuff
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Supraspinatus
Agonist
Stabilize shoulder
joint. Abducts
shoulder
Above scapular
spine
(supraspinous
fossa)
Greater
Tubercle of
Humerus
Infraspinatus
Agonist
Stabilize shoulder
Below scapular
joint. Lateral rotation spine
(infraspinous
fossa)
Greater
Tubercle of
Humerus
Teres Minor
Agonist
Stabilize shoulder
joint. Lateral
rotation.
Greater
Tubercle of
Humerus
Subscapularis
Stabilizer
Rotates medially and Iliac Crest and
stabilizes shoulder
Lumbar vertebra
Lateral border of
scapula
Lesser Tubercle
of Humerus
Scapular Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Trapezius
Agonist
Scapular elevation,
adduction, retraction,
upward rotation &
extends neck
Occipital bone,
Cervical & thoracic
vertebrae
Spine of Scapula,
acromion process
&clavicle
Rhomboids
Major & Minor
Agonist
Assist Traps in
downward rotation of
scapular &adduction of
scapula
Maj. T2-T5
Min. C1-T1
Medial border of
the scapula
Levator Scapulae
Agonist
Elevates scapula
Base of skull &
upper cervical
vertebrae
Upper medial
border of scapula
Serratus anterior
Stabilizer
Upward rotation &
abduction of the
scapula
Ribs 1-8
Medial border of
the scapula
Scapular Muscles cont.
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Pectoralis
Minor
Agonist
Elevates ribs &
Ribs 3,4,5
Depresses Scapula
Insertion
Coracoid
process
Muscles that move Humerus
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Deltoids
Three heads
Anterior, lateral,
posterior
Agonist
Laterally abducts
arms,
Medial and lateral
rotation
From the
clavicle to
the acromion
to scapular
spine
Humerus
(Deltoid
tuberosity)
Coracobrachialis
Agonist
Flexor and arm
adductor
Coracoid
Process
Humerus
Teres
Major
Agonist
Medial rotator and
adductor
Lateral
Border of the
scapula
Humerus
Elbow Flexors & Extensors
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Bicep
Brachii
Agonist
Supinator and flexor of
the arm
2 places
Short head on
corracoid
Long Head superior
glenoid fossa
Radius
Radial
TUberosity
Brachialis
Agonist
Pronator and arem
flexor
Anterior surface of
humerus
Coronoid process
Tricep Brachii
Agonist
Arm Extensor
1)Lateral head –
posterior humerus
2)Long Head –
infragleniod fossa
3)Medial head
posterior humerus
Olecranon
Brachioradialis
Agonist
Elbow flexor, very
powerful when arm is
pronated
Lateral epicondyle of
humerus
Olecranon
Supination and Pronation of the
Forearm
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Pronator
Quadratus
Agonist
Pronates
forearm
Anterior surface of
distal ulna
Distal surface of
radius
Pronator teres
Agonist
Pronates
forearm
Medial epicondyle
of the humerus
and the coronoid
porcess
Lateral mid
shaft of radius
Supinator
Agonist
Supinates
forearm
Lateral epicondyle
of humerus
Lateral aspect
of radius
Extrinsic Hand Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Flexor – Pronator
Group
Agonist
Pronator and flexor of
the wrist and digits
Medial epicondyle of
the humerus
Meta carpals
Phalanges
Extensor –
Supinator
Group
Agonist
Supinator and flexor of
wrist ad digits
Lateral epicondyle
of humerus
Meta Carpals
Phalanges
Pelvic Muscles
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Gluteus
Maximus
Agonist
Hip
extension
and external
rotation
Illiac crest
saccrum and
coccyx
Greater
trochanter
Gluteus
Medius
Agonist
Abduction
and internal
rotation
Anterior surface
of the illiac crest
Posterior
surface of
greater
trochanter
Sartorius
Agonist
Hip Flexion
Outward
rotation
Medial surface of
the tibia
Medial surface
of the tibia
Gluteus Max, Med, Min
Hip Adductors
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Illiopsoas
Agonist
Hip and trunk
felxion
Ilium and lumbar
vertebrae
Lesser
Trochanter of
the Femur
Adductor
longus
Agonist
Hip Adduction
Pubis
Femur
Adductor
magnus
Agonist
Hip adduction
and extension
Pubis and ischium
Femur
Hip Muscles
Quadriceps
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Rectus Femoris
Agonist
Knee Extension and Hip
Flexion
Iliac crest
Patellar
Tendon
Vastus Lateralis
Agonist
Knee Extension
Femur
Patellar
Tendon
Vastus
intermedius
Agonist
Knee Extension
Femur
Patellar
Tendon
Vastus Medialis
Agonist
Knee Extension
Femur
Patellar
Tendon
Quadriceps
Hamstrings
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Bicep Femoris
Agonist
Flexes knee, Rotates
knee externally, extends
hip
Ischium
Head of Fibula
Semimembranosus Agonist
Flexes knee, Rotates
knee internally, extends
hip
Ischium
Medial tibial
condyle
Flexes knee, Rotates
knee internally
Ischium
Medial tibial
condyle
Semitendinosus
Agonist
Hamstrings
Lower Leg
Muscle Name
Function
Describe
movements
Origin
Insertion
Tibialis Anterior
Agonist
Dorsi Flexes ankle and
inverts foot
Anterior shaft of tibia
Metatarsals
Gastrocnemius
Agonist
Plantar Flexes ankle
and felxes knee
Medial and Lateral
Condyles
Calcaneous
Soleus
Agonist
Plantar Flexes ankle
Fibula
Calcaneous
Lower Leg Muscles
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Muscles Origins and Insertions