Basic Principles of
Physical Fitness
Chapter 2
Physical Activity on a
Physical activity:
any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles
and requiring energy
planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body
designed to improve or maintain physical fitness
Physical fitness:
a set of physical attributes that allows the body to respond
or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort
Physical Activity and Exercise for
Health and Fitness
Levels of physical activity have declined in
recent years and remain low for all
The Centers of Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC) reported the following:
33% participate in some leisure activity
About 28% of Americans report exercising
vigorously for 10 minutes 3 times per week.
25% are physically inactive
39% of Americans with graduate degrees exercise
compared to only 78% of high school dropouts
Percentage of adult Americans reporting
no leisure-time physical activity
Increasing Physical Activity to Improve
Health and Wellness
 2010: the U.S. Surgeon General issued The Surgeon General’s Vision for a
Healthy and Fit Nation.
 2008: The U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Physical Activity
Guidelines for Americans recommends the following:
150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, or 75 minutes
of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise, per week
Increase the volume and intensity of an exercise for more health
Healthy adults should do resistive exercises at least twice a week
Examples of moderate physical activity:
Brisk walking
Yard work
Example of vigorous exercise: jogging
Moderate Amounts of
Physical Activity
Exercise to Develop Physical Fitness
Lifestyle physical activity improves health
but may not improve fitness
A structured, formal exercise program
improves physical fitness and provides
even greater health improvements
How Much Physical Activity
Is Enough?
How Much Physical
Activity Is Enough?
Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity
Continuous versus intermittent exercise
Low-intensity exercise improves health
but may not be very beneficial for
improving physical fitness
Health-related Components of
Physical Fitness
 There are 5 areas of fitness which help establish health benefits
 Health-related fitness helps you withstand physical challenges and
protects you from diseases
 The 5 components:
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Muscular Strength
Muscular Endurance
Body Composition
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
 Ability to perform prolonged, large muscle, dynamic exercise at
moderate to high levels of intensity.
 Depends on the ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen from the environment to
the bloodstream and the efficiency of the heart and nervous system
 Cardiorespiratory fitness improves:
The heart pumps more blood per heartbeat
Resting heart rate slows
Blood volume increases
Blood supply to tissue improves
The body can cool itself better
Resting blood pressure decreases
Metabolism in skeletal muscle is enhanced
In older adults, levels of antioxidant chemicals are increased and lowers
oxidative stress
 Cardiorespiratory endurance exercise examples:
Aerobic dancing
Muscle Strength and Endurance
 Muscular Strength is the amount of force a muscle can produce in a
single maximum effort
 Muscular Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue and sustain a given
level of muscle tension for a given time.
 Benefits include:
Increased body mass
Increased metabolism
Reduced effects of sarcopenia
Increases antioxidant enzymes and lowers oxidative stress in
older adults
Increased bone density
Improved self-confidence and ability to manage stress
Improved posture and reduction of low back pain
 The ability to move the joints through their full range of
 Flexibility is affected by many factors such as joint
structure, length and elasticity of connective tissue, and
nervous system activity.
 Flexibility is needed in everyday routines.
 Benefits include:
Lowered risk of back injuries
Promotion of good posture and decreased risk of
other joint injuries
Reduction in age-related stiffness
Body Composition
 The proportion of fat and fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in
the body
 Healthy body composition is comprised of high levels of fat-free mass
and an acceptable low level of body fat.
 The relative amount of body fat a person has does have an impact
upon overall health and fitness.
 Too much body fat could have the following effects:
Heart disease
•Blood vessel inflammation
Insulin resistance
•Gallbladder Disease
High blood pressure
Joint problems
Type II Diabetes
•Back pain
•Premature death
 The best way to lose fat is through exercise and a sensible diet.
Skill-Related Components of
Reaction time
Specificity—Adapting to
Type of Training
The body adapts to the particular type and
amount of stress placed on it
To develop a particular fitness component,
perform exercises specifically designed for
that component
Progressive Overload—Adapting
to Amount of Training
Placing increasing amounts of stress on
the body causes adaptations that improve
fitness; progression is critical
FITT principle for overload:
Frequency—How often
Intensity—How hard
Time—How long (duration)
Type—Mode of activity
Reversibility—Adapting to a
Reduction in Training
Fitness improvements are lost when
demands on the body are lowered
If you stop exercising, up to 50% of
fitness improvements are lost within 2
Individual Differences—
Limits on Adaptability
Everyone is NOT created equal from a
physical standpoint
There are large individual differences in
ability to improve fitness, body
composition, and sports skills
Designing Your Own Exercise
 Medical clearance
 Men under the age of 40 and women under 50: exercise is
probably safe
 Assessing yourself
 Assess you fitness level for all 5 health-related fitness
 Set goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time
 Choose activities for a balanced program
Physical Activity Pyramid
Benefits of Different Types
of Programs
Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to
Train regularly
Start slowly, and get in shape gradually;
do not overtrain
Warm up before exercise
Cool down after exercise
Exercise safely
Guidelines for Training
Listen to your body, and get adequate rest
Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts
Try training with a partner
Vary your activities
Train your mind
Fuel your activity appropriately
Have fun
Track your progress
Keep your exercise program in perspective
Progression of an Exercise
Program: Get in Shape Gradually
Amount of Exercise for
Fitness Benefits
Choosing a Fitness Center
Trained personnel
Wellness Worksheet
Chapter 2 Connect Worksheet is due on
Wednesday, September 12th, no later than

Basic Principles of Physical Fitness