InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Lutz Leisering, Tobias Böger
Measuring Social Citizenship
in Developing Countries
DFG-Research Project FLOOR-B
www.floorgroup.de
Principal Investigator: Lutz Leisering
F L O O R
F IN AN CIAL ASSIST ANC E , L AND P OL ICY , AND G L OB AL SOC IAL RI GHT S
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Contents
1. The benchmark: social citizenship
2. From North to South
3. Social assistance as citizenship?
4. The FLOOR data base
5. The case of social pensions
6. Conclusion
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
1. The Benchmark: Social Citizenship
Social rights!? Diffuse meaning
Social citizenship (T.H. Marshall 1950)
Three dimensions of social citizenship:
 Resources
 Participation
 Recognition
Based on non-egalitarian reading of T.H. Marshall (Powell 2002)
„Equality of status is more important than equality of
income.“ (Marshall 1950: 56)
Lutz Leisering, Armando Barrientos: Social citizenship for the global poor?
The worldwide spread of social assistance. In: B.&U. Davy, L. Leisering eds.,
Exploring global citizenship: human rights perspectives. Int J Soc Welfare 22 (2013),
Supplement 1
L. Leisering, B.&U. Davy: The politics of recognition (forthcoming UNYB 2015)
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
2. From North to South
North: social insurance as core of social citizenship;though:
 industrial citizenship
 „social insurance“ in broader sense
 T.H. Marshall: education and social services as core
South:
 Social insurance: low coverage (informal sector), regressive
 Social assistance: growing since the 1990s; more central role („social cash transfers“)
Social assistance also growing in the North
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
3. Social Assistance as Citizenship?
Data?
Comparative data hard to come by even in North (Eardley et al. 1996; Nelson, Marx,
Bahle et al. 2011)
Citizenship?
 Not seen as citizenship: British Labour orthodoxy/Titmuss, Esping-Andersen
 For developing countries: rejected by all international organisations till 1990s
 But T.H. Marshall (1965): social assistance can be a component of social citizenship
How to measure the social citizenship character
of social assistance by quantitative variables?
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
4. The FLOOR Data Base
The FLOOR project: three disciplines, two data bases
FLOOR-B: social cash transfers
All cash transfers schemes in all countries of the global South
Types of cash transfers:




social pensions
Family allowances
Conditional cash transfers to families
General household assistance
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
5. The Case of Social Pensions
Measuring social rights:
- Conditions of entitlement (I): Qualifying age ->
Recognition / Participation:
- Conditions of entitlement (II): Universalism vs.
Means-testing -> Recognition
- Benefit generosity -> Resources
What kind of data is needed?
How can it be aggregrated?
Tobias Böger: Diffusing Social Citizenship at the
Margins? The Spread of Social Pensions in the Global
South. FLOOR WP 2014
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Life expectancy at
age 60
Qualifying age
Conditions of entitlement (I): Qualifying age
Region
EAS
ECS
LCN
Country
Year
(f)
(m)
(f)
(m)
Years Covered by social pension
(f)
Rank
(m)
Rank
BRN
2011
60
60
22,70
20,12
22,70
2
20,12
1
CHN
2011
60
60
20,56
18,40
20,56
11
18,40
8
IDN
2010
70
70
18,43
16,35
8,43
60
6,35
59
KIR
2010
67
67
17,98
15,78
10,98
58
8,78
56
KOR
2009
65
65
25,19
20,50
20,19
12
15,50
20
MNG
2009
55
60
17,59
14,30
17,59
34
14,30
30
MYS
2010
60
60
19,70
17,56
19,70
16
17,56
9
PHL
2011
77
77
18,50
15,33
1,50
63
N/C
63
THA
2011
60
60
22,62
20,03
22,62
3
20,03
3
TLS
2010
60
60
17,26
15,58
17,26
37
15,58
19
VNM
2010
60
60
24,43
18,81
24,43
1
18,81
6
WSM
2010
65
65
20,57
15,80
15,57
45
10,80
47
ARM
2011
65
65
22,13
17,69
17,13
38
12,69
36
AZE
2010
62
67
19,70
15,95
17,70
32
8,95
54
GEO
2010
60
65
21,24
17,16
21,24
7
12,16
40
KAZ
2009
58
63
18,74
13,41
18,74
22
10,41
51
KGZ
2006
58
63
18,40
14,52
18,40
26
11,52
45
TJK
2005
60
65
19,91
14,77
19,91
13
9,77
53
TKM
2010
57
62
18,66
14,88
18,66
23
12,88
34
TUR
2011
65
65
22,93
18,67
17,93
29
13,67
31
UZB
2009
60
65
19,66
16,49
19,66
17
11,49
46
ARG
2011
70
70
23,75
18,72
13,75
49
8,72
57
ATG
2005
77
77
21,79
18,92
4,79
62
1,92
62
BHS
2011
65
65
23,81
20,44
18,81
21
15,44
23
BLZ
2010
65
67
22,51
19,34
17,51
36
12,34
39
BOL
2011
60
60
19,63
17,54
19,63
18
17,54
10
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
Conditions of entitlement (II): Universalism vs. Means-test
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Universal
Pension-Tested
Means-Tested
General MeansTest
KIR
WSM
GUY
BWA
TLS
MUS
KAZ
GEO
BOL
NAM
SUR
BRN
SYC
UGA
NPL
TJK
BHS
GTM
ARM
UZB
KGZ
PER
MEX
VCT
PAN
MNG
BRB
LSO
THA
MDV
CHN
AZE
TKM
VNM*
KNA
CHL**
ZAF
KOR
SWZ
Poverty-Tested
Minimum Standard
Selective Poverty
Targeting
DOM
MOZ
MYS
KEN
DZA
OMN
BLZ
EGY
VNM*
SLV
IDN
PHL
PRY
ECU
IND
COL
JAM
BGD
ATG
CPV
ARG
URY
BRA
TTO
VEN
CRI
TUR
Italics: Pilot program; *: Differentiated by age; **: Additionally pension-tested
Coupling of means-test and benefit level
Range of income groups
Strong
Loose/No
Wide (excluding the wealthy)
(Semi-Universal)
General Means-Test
Small (targeting the poor)
Minimum Standard
Selective Poverty Targeting
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Benefit generosity (I): absolute level
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Benefit generosity (II): relative level
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Constructing a fuzzy set ideal type: The right to a minimum income in old age
Dimension
of social
pension
Long Period of Coverage
(Need) Universality
Benefits above the poverty-threshold
Dimension of
citizenship
(Leisering/Ba
rrientos
2013)
Participation / Recognition
Recognition
Resources
Coverage in years using life expectancy at
age 60
Type of „conditions of circumstance“
Benefit Level in i$
Indicator
Fuzzy set
thresholds
Out
0 years
Crossover
10 years
In
15 years
Out
N/A
Crossover
Selective
poverty
targeting
In
Out
Universal,
0i$/month
Penion-tested,
General Meanstest, minimum
standard
Crossover
38i$/month
In
61i$/month
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
Fuzzy Set Analysis: The right to a minimum income in old age
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0
DOM
PHL
MOZ
BGD
TJK
IND
JAM
CHN
VNM
NPL
ATG
UGA
KGZ
KEN
IDN
TKM
LSO
THA
KIR
ARM
MYS
BLZ
COL
ECU
PRY
SLV
DZA
EGY
OMN
CPV
SWZ
BWA
GUY
MNG
URY
ARG
TLS
UZB
MEX
VCT
TTO
BOL
WSM
AZE
PAN
BRB
KAZ
GTM
ZAF
TUR
MDV
BRA
SYC
PER
NAM
GEO
BHS
CHL
KOR
CRI
SUR
MUS
VEN
BRN
0,2
(Need) universal benefits
Benefits above poverty line
Long period of coverage
Right to a minimum income
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR
InGRID Expert Workshop | Stockholm November 2014
6. Conclusion
1. Measuring Social Citizenship:
 differentiating program variables
 bringing in socio-structural variables
 bringing in societal norms
Program specific
2. Concepts of social citizenship:
Minimalist vs. maximalist standards
3. To Do:




other life-cycle groups (risk groups)
time series data
systemic approach (all groups/programs)
Institutional aspects of citizenship
Lutz Leisering & Tobias Böger | Research Group FLOOR