V : Leading the Project Coalition
• designing effective project organisations
• infusing the project mission
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
1
Complex Organisations
•
•
•
•
•
•
a purpose
a division of labour
structure
a hierarchy
a set of transformation processes
a set of co-ordination processes
two types of organisation
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
process
2
Two Types of Organisation
Bureaucratic organisation
Adhocratic organisation
Tall hierarchy
Flat hierarchy
Clear and precise specification of task Ambiguous and overlapping task
responsibilities
responsibilities
Reliance upon procedures for co- Reliance
upon
leadership
and
ordination
teamworking for co-ordination
Search for technical fixes to co- Development
of
organisational
ordination problems
capabilities to solve co-ordination
problems
Production driven
Responsive to client needs
Strong emphasis upon planning
Strong emphasis upon learning by
doing
Simple jobs in a complex organisation
Complex jobs in a simple organisation
Emphasis on productivity
Emphasis on flexibility
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
3
15: Designing Effective Project
Organisations
[Co-ordination] expresses the principles of organization in toto;
nothing less. This does not mean that there are no subordinate
principles : it simply means that all the others are contained in
this one of co-ordination. The others are simply the principles
through which co-ordination operates and thus becomes
effective
James D. Mooney
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
4
Designing Effective Project Organisations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
the rise of the project management concept
the responsibilities of the client
who is the project manager?
organising the project through the life-cycle
project organisation in construction
the organisation breakdown structure
project teamworking
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
5
The Rise of the PM Concept
• an organisational innovation
– a specialist co-ordinator of the process
• constructing large, complex systems
– railways
– aerospace
• the cold war programmes
– Polaris/ Atlas
• resource bases and project coordinators
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
6
Resource Bases and Project Coordinators
project co-ordinator
control
resource base
control
functional
© Graham M Winch
light weight
heavy weight
cell
7
Resource Bases and Project Coordinators
Project Manager
What is the task to be done?
When will the task be done?
Why will the task be done?
What is the budget for the task
Resource-Base Manager
How will the task be done?
Where will the task be done?
Who will do the task?
What are the resources required for the
task?
Quality of integration of task output into Quality of task output
final product
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
8
A Hierarchy of Project Managers
• project manager
• programme manager
– but note alternative definition
• project division
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
9
The Responsibilities of the Client
• promoter
– defining need
• financier
– obtaining capital
• decision-maker
– appropriately timed decisions
• recruiter
– mobilising appropriate resource bases
• the problem of managerial capabilities
– in-house capability
– executive project management
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
10
Client Project Management Options
client
client
PM
dept
executive
project
manager
project coalition
© Graham M Winch
project coalition
11
Who is the Project Manager?
• project management as a diffused
responsibility
• Tate Modern Project Directors
– Tate
– Stanhope
– Schal
• Boston Central/Artery
– client side/supply side
– external relations/internal effectiveness
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
12
Boston C/AT Project Organisation
client
side
supply
side
© Graham M Winch
external relations
internal
effectiveness
Project
Director
Deputy
Project
Director
Program
Manager
Project
Manager
13
Organisation Through the Life-cycle
• organisation design a function of the level of
uncertainty and size
• as uncertainty reduces organisation changes
bureaucracy
• as size increases, organisation changes
bureaucracy
• matrix swing
– centralised to decentralised
– around 15% complete
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
14
Project Organisation in Construction
• little coordination at the level of the project as
a whole
• mixing project and resource base
management responsibilities
• poor training
• resource bases in the project coalition
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
15
Resource-bases and the Project Coalition
the project coalition
team B
team C
team A
team D
© Graham M Winch
team E
team F
16
The OBS
• responsibility analysis
– X axis - resource bases
– Y axis - WBS
– level of responsibility
• DECA
–
–
–
–
© Graham M Winch
Decide
Execute
Consult
Advise
Leading the Project Coalition
17
Basic Module of a Responsibility Chart
resource base
dimension
task
dimension
© Graham M Winch
E
Leading the Project Coalition
Decide
Execute
Consult
Advise
18
Project Teamworking
• most appropriate size: 5- 7
• complementary skills
– leader; generator; evaluator; finisher
•
•
•
•
clear goals
appropriate incentives
the manageable zone
the team development cycle
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
19
The Manageable Zone in Teamworking
groupthink
unmanageable conflict
low team
diversity
high team
diversity
manageable zone
© Graham M Winch
Leading the Project Coalition
20
The Team Development Cycle
performance impact
real
team
performing
working
group
potential
team
norming
forming
pseudo
team
storming
© Graham M Winch
team effectiveness
21
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V : Leading the Project Coalition