INTERNATIONAL POLICY CONFERENCE
“COMPETITIVENESS & DIVERSIFICATION:
STRATEGIC CHALLENGES IN A PETROLEUMRICH ECONOMY”
Oil & Gas Development & Health in Ghana
Edith Clark
14 – 15 march 2011, Accra, Ghana
OIL & GAS DEVELOPMENT &
HEALTH IN GHANA
15 March 2010
Context?
•
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the oil and gas
developments led by by EPA identified 20 priority issues
 15 issues health related; 5 directly concerned with health and health
system; others likely to have impacts on the health status by altering
the determinants of health.
• TOR of SEA does not allow for in-depth coverage of health aspects.
•
Hence decision to conduct strategic level Health Impact Assessment
(SHIA) – Using New WHO governance framework to identify &
address health & related social implications
•
SHIA will run in parallel with the SEA and will feed information and
data into the process;
•
Recommendations of HIA will be coordinated with the health sector
plans;
Public health concerns identified (i)
Project
induced
changes or
pressures
Environmental, social, or institutional
determinant of health affected
Population influx Competition for resources or livelihood
opportunities
High
expectation of
Competition for project related benefits
benefits
Change in household/individual
Land use
purchasing power
changes
Strain on infrastructure/social services
Environmental
Change in social demographics
degradation or
pollution
Exposure to environmental risk factors
(chemicals, noise, air pollution, etc.)
Rapid
development
Loss of access to land,
Loss of biodiversity, ecosystems services
Resulting health impacts
Change in diet, nutritional
status,
Increased risk of infectious
diseases,
Non-communicable diseases
Stress and mental health
disorders
Substance abuse, alcoholism
Violence, crime, conflict
Accidents and injuries
Key areas to be covered in the HIA (i)
1. Stakeholder engagement activities, including community
engagement,
– including a detailed mapping of actors with an interest
and role to play in addressing public health concerns
2. Baseline of current community health status
3. Analysis of potential impacts of oil and gas activities on
health and on health determinants -incl cumulative
impacts
4. Assessment of emergency preparedness and response
capacity, in particular to respond to chemical incidents
5. Assessment of capacity to regulate, monitor, and respond
to occupational health and safety issues associated with
the growth of a new industry
Results Expected from SHIA
i. Development of a high level / master (sector level) health
management plan which will:
– Inform investment activities - to fill gaps identified /build
core capacities
– Help Identify opportunities to foster alignment between
existing health programs & activities & others to be
planned
– Baseline will be reference point for project operatives
conducting EIAs & thus help to influence project level
health management plans
ii. Monitoring system associated with the health management plan
: include early warning signs & use of indicators that can
identify health gains & losses in relation to community health
baseline
iii.Develop institutional capacity for HIA through training and
applied learning
Conclusion
• Terms of Reference for strategic Health Impact Assessment
have been drafted
• Mobilizing partners and resources to support first phase –
the strategic HIA - in early 2011
•
SHIA - key opportunity for enhancing integration of public health &
occupational health issues within project level HIAs and inform
investment decisions by companies in consultation with Regional &
district health administration & energy sector
• By focussing on sector level, will allow for identification of cumulative
impacts not normally addressed by project level activities
• Will help to reverse the resource curse witnessed by sister countries
who may not have taken cognizance of health and related issues
adequately in planning oil and gas developments
Thank you
Dr Edith Clarke
Programme Manager
Occupational and Environmental Health
Ghana Health Service
Ministry of Health
HIA team
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Oil & Gas Development & Health in Ghana