Evidence-Based Practice
• Current knowledge and practice
must be based on evidence of efficacy
rather than intuition, tradition, or past
• The importance of employing the
core competency of evidence-based
practice is essential in contemporary
professional practice.
Evidence-Based Practice
• Evidence-based practice, a core
competency for health professionals is
defined as the use of clinical expertise and
interventions that are based on evidence
of efficacy for client outcomes and the
preferences of the clients served.
Evidence-Based Practice
• Research is a process for generating
scientific knowledge and utilizing the
knowledge on which to base practice.
• Using evidence of efficacy for practice is a
vital professional attribute and a
Nursing Research
• Nursing research began with Florence
Nightingale and has become vital to both
professionals and consumers in
investigating the domain of nursing,
testing theories and interventions, and
demonstrating the efficacy and efficiency
of nursing actions.
Nursing Research
• Highly evident in the research priorities of
the National Institute of Nursing Research
is testing of nursing interventions that
promote health behaviors in individuals or
population groups.
Nursing Research
• Ethical considerations in research must
include the four basic human rights:
• Do no harm (beneficence)
• Full disclosure
• Self-determination
• Privacy and confidentiality
Nursing Research
• A professional nurse should be an active
consumer of nursing research, promoting use of
current and valid scientific knowledge and
identifying the questions to be addressed in
further research.
Professional accountability demands that one
read the literature, attend educational sessions,
use critique skills, participate in investigations,
and promote evidence-based interventions.
Empirical Research
Based on the strict rules of the scientific
method, with the following steps:
Identification of the problem
Statement of the purpose
Review of the literature
Description of theoretical framework
Definition of terms
Empirical Research
• Statement of hypothesis(es)
• Selection of the research design,
population, and sample
• Approval by the IRB
• Collection of data
• Analysis and interpretation of data
• Presentation of findings and
Research Critiques
• A research critique is an objective analysis
of a published research report.
• The ultimate goal of a research critique is
to consider applicability of appropriate
scientific findings to one’s own
professional practice and knowledge base.
Research Problem
• A research problem is the main issue or
central question that the researcher
addresses in the investigation.
• Specific research questions or hypotheses
flow from the main research problem.
Literature Review
• The literature review is a report and
comparison of all pertinent prior
investigations on the topic, variables of
interest, theoretical models, and methods
• The researcher focuses on primary
sources for a critical appraisal and
synthesis of what is known currently.
Research Variables
• Variables are concepts and constructs defined
and manipulated, controlled, or measured in a
research study.
• Independent variables are manipulated by the
researcher, such as the cause, treatment, or
difference between the groups.
 Dependent variables are the outcome variables
that the researcher is measuring and analyzing.
• Hypotheses are predictions about the
variables that the researcher is testing
with a subject group.
• Hypothesis testing uses inferential
statistics to infer from the sample and
make generalizations about the
Research Design
• The research design is the overall
blueprint and methods for the study.
• Descriptive Designs
• Analytical Designs
• Experimental Designs
Research Methodology
• Research methods may be quantitative or
Quantitative methods focus on numerical data
that can be obtained from subjects through any
one or a combination of measurement
Qualitative methods focus on information
gathered from individuals and groups, often in
their natural environment, to explore in depth
their unique qualities and generate theory on a
little-known topic or construct.
• Sampling is the use of a subset (sample)
of the population as a feasible group to
study and ultimately generalize findings to
the population.
• Sampling Strategies
– Randomized
– Non-Randomized
Data Collection
• Instruments are the measurement tools
for collecting data.
• Important considerations for use of any
instrument are the reliability and validity
of the measurement.
Data Analysis
• Statistics are used in analyzing
quantitative research methods.
• Descriptive statistics are used to
summarize and describe data.
• Inferential statistics are used to test
hypotheses, make predictions, and infer
from the sample to the population.