Evidence-Based Practice • Current knowledge and practice must be based on evidence of efficacy rather than intuition, tradition, or past practice. • The importance of employing the core competency of evidence-based practice is essential in contemporary professional practice. Evidence-Based Practice (cont.) • Evidence-based practice, a core competency for health professionals is defined as the use of clinical expertise and interventions that are based on evidence of efficacy for client outcomes and the preferences of the clients served. Evidence-Based Practice (cont.) • Research is a process for generating scientific knowledge and utilizing the knowledge on which to base practice. • Using evidence of efficacy for practice is a vital professional attribute and a responsibility. Nursing Research • Nursing research began with Florence Nightingale and has become vital to both professionals and consumers in investigating the domain of nursing, testing theories and interventions, and demonstrating the efficacy and efficiency of nursing actions. Nursing Research (cont.) • Highly evident in the research priorities of the National Institute of Nursing Research is testing of nursing interventions that promote health behaviors in individuals or population groups. Nursing Research Ethics • Ethical considerations in research must include the four basic human rights: • Do no harm (beneficence) • Full disclosure • Self-determination • Privacy and confidentiality Nursing Research (cont.) • A professional nurse should be an active • consumer of nursing research, promoting use of current and valid scientific knowledge and identifying the questions to be addressed in further research. Professional accountability demands that one read the literature, attend educational sessions, use critique skills, participate in investigations, and promote evidence-based interventions. Empirical Research Based on the strict rules of the scientific method, with the following steps: • • • • • Identification of the problem Statement of the purpose Review of the literature Description of theoretical framework Definition of terms Empirical Research (cont.) • Statement of hypothesis(es) • Selection of the research design, population, and sample • Approval by the IRB • Collection of data • Analysis and interpretation of data • Presentation of findings and recommendations Research Critiques • A research critique is an objective analysis of a published research report. • The ultimate goal of a research critique is to consider applicability of appropriate scientific findings to one’s own professional practice and knowledge base. Research Problem • A research problem is the main issue or central question that the researcher addresses in the investigation. • Specific research questions or hypotheses flow from the main research problem. Literature Review • The literature review is a report and comparison of all pertinent prior investigations on the topic, variables of interest, theoretical models, and methods used. • The researcher focuses on primary sources for a critical appraisal and synthesis of what is known currently. Research Variables • Variables are concepts and constructs defined and manipulated, controlled, or measured in a research study. • Independent variables are manipulated by the researcher, such as the cause, treatment, or difference between the groups. Dependent variables are the outcome variables that the researcher is measuring and analyzing. Hypothesis(es) • Hypotheses are predictions about the variables that the researcher is testing with a subject group. • Hypothesis testing uses inferential statistics to infer from the sample and make generalizations about the population. Research Design • The research design is the overall blueprint and methods for the study. • Descriptive Designs • Analytical Designs • Experimental Designs Research Methodology • Research methods may be quantitative or • • qualitative. Quantitative methods focus on numerical data that can be obtained from subjects through any one or a combination of measurement instruments. Qualitative methods focus on information gathered from individuals and groups, often in their natural environment, to explore in depth their unique qualities and generate theory on a little-known topic or construct. Sampling • Sampling is the use of a subset (sample) of the population as a feasible group to study and ultimately generalize findings to the population. • Sampling Strategies – Randomized – Non-Randomized Data Collection • Instruments are the measurement tools for collecting data. • Important considerations for use of any instrument are the reliability and validity of the measurement. Data Analysis • Statistics are used in analyzing quantitative research methods. • Descriptive statistics are used to summarize and describe data. • Inferential statistics are used to test hypotheses, make predictions, and infer from the sample to the population.