CIPLA
RANBAXY
DRL
WHAT IS COMMON ?
UNCERTAINTY
 CAN IT BE ELIMINATED ?
 CAN IT BE REDUCED ?
RESEARCH REDUCES UNCERTAINTY.
RESEARCH
All
of us have done research
knowingly or unknowingly !!
 RESEARCH
IS A SYSTEMATIC
SEARCH FOR INFORMATION.
 RESEARCH IS A PURPOSEFUL
INVESTIGATION.
RESEARCH :
FOUNTAIN OF KNOWLEDGE
TO FIND HIDDEN TRUTH
TO DISCOVER ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS
SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH
 Research leads to invention.
 Helps in solving operational problems.
 Provides the basis for govt. policies.
 Helps in solving social problems.
 Helps in taking decisions.
RESEARCH & COMMON SENSE
Systematic
Objective
Reproducible
Relevant
Research is not a fishing expedition.
OBJECTIVES :
To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to
achieve new insights into it .
(Exploratory or formulative research studies)
To find out / portray accurately the
characteristics of a particular
individual, situation or a group.
(Descriptive research studies)
To determine the frequency with which
something occurs or with which it is
associated with something else.
(Diagnostic research studies)
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship
between variables.
(Hypothesis testing research studies)
TYPES OF RESEARCH :
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH :
1)The literature survey
2)The experience survey
3)The analysis of case studies
CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH :
1)
Descriptive research
2) Experimental research
CLASSIFICATION OF RESEARCH :
Applied Vs. Fundamental research
Descriptive Vs. Analytical research
Quantitative Vs. Qualitative research
Conceptual Vs. Empirical research
ROLE OF
RESEARCH IN
IMPORTANT AREAS
MARKETING :
 Consumer buying behavior
 Demand forecasting
 Measuring advertising effectiveness
 Media selection
 Product positioning
 New product potential
PRODUCTION :
What to produce?
How much to produce?
Plant location
Production process
Quality process
Optimum inventory level
FINANCE :
o Amount of working capital
o Amount of cash
o Investment decisions
o Financing decisions
H.R.D.
▼Incentives
▼Employees turnover
▼Performance appraisal
▼Recruitment & training
RESEARCH METHOD

Methods of data collection

Statistical methods for study of
relationship

Methods used to evaluate accuracy
of the results obtained
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A way/process to systematically
solve the research problem
 Cover various steps adopted by the
researcher
 Methodology will be different from
problem to problem
CRITERIA OF GOOD RESEARCH




The purpose of the research should be clearly
defined.
The research procedure used should be
described in sufficient detail.
The design of research should be properly
planned.
Validity and reliability of data should be
checked carefully.
Cont..
 Method
of analysis should be
appropriate and analysis of data should
be adequate.
 Conclusion
should be confined to
those justified to data.
 Researcher
should have knowledge,
experience and integrity.
PROCESS OF RESEARCH

Problem definition

Research design

Data collection

Data analysis

Interpretation of results
R.L.ACKOFF: Five Component of
a Problem

Research - Consumer

Research - Consumer’s objectives

Alternative means to meet the objectives

Doubt in regard to select of objectives

One or more environment to which the problem
pertains
MERTON: Three components in
the promulgation of a problem

The originating question: What

Rationale of question: Why

The specifying question: Possible answer
DEFINING A PROBLEM: Steps





Statement of the problem in a general way
Understanding the nature of the problem
Surveying the available literature
Developing the ideas through discussion
Rephrasing the research problem into
working proposition
A COMPLETE PROBLEM DEFINITION
Specify the following:




Unit of analysis: Source of information “on
what”, “on whom”.
Time and space co-ordinates.
Characteristics of interest: 2 x 2 matrix by
Frank, Massy & Wind.
Environmental condition:
Beyond control
Within control
CHARACTERISTICS OF
INTEREST
Characteristics
General
Objective
Inferred
Situation specific
Demographic
Socioeconomic
Personality
Trait
Intelligence
Purchase
behaviour
Brand use
Attitudes
Perceptions
RESEARCH PROBLEM AS
HYPOTHESIS TESTING
It is often convenient to structure a research problem
in term hypothesis to be tested.
Hypothesis is simply a statement about the Universe :
It may or may not be true.
The research is designed to find out the truth.
Hypothesis guides the researcher to select the
relevant information
SOURCES OF HYPOTHESIS

Personal experience and observations.

Hypothesis may rest on the finding of
other studies.

Hypothesis may stem from a body of
theory.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
USEABLE HYPOTHESIS

It should be empirically tested.

It should be closest to thing observable.

It must be conceptually clear.

It must be specific.
RESEARCH DESIGN
 A blue
print for the research study .
 Covers
various phases of research.
 A comprehensive

master plan
Guiding framework for the research study.
RESEARCH DESIGN DECISIONS
ARE:






What is the study about ?
Why is the study being made?
Where will the study be carried out?
What type of data required ?
Where the required data is found?
What periods of time will the study
include?
Cont..
 What
will be the sample design?
 What techniques of data collection will be
used?
 How will be the data analyzed?
 In what style will the report are prepared?
FOUR PHASES OF
RESEARCH DESIGN
 Sampling
design: Methods of selecting items
 Observational design: Conditions on which the
observations are to be made.
 Statistical design: How the data to be
analyzed?
 Operational design: procedures to be carried
out.
IMPORTANT CONCEPTS
 Dependent
& Independent variable.
 Extraneous Variable : independent variable not
related to the purpose of the study.
 Control : effect of extraneous variable is
minimum .
 Research hypothesis.
CAUSALITY
– outcome
 Causal Variable - Effect Variable
 There is strong evidence to say that there
exists a strong association.
 The action must precede outcome.
 Action
 There
is strong evidence to say that there were
no other possible factors, which could have
resulted in the observed outcome.
RESEARCH DESIGN FOR
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH STUDIES






The survey of literature
The experience survey
The analysis of selected cases.
Design is flexible.
No structured questions
Convenience sampling.
RESEARCH DESIGN FOR DESCRIPTIVE
RESEARCH STUDIES
 Panel
Research Design : Periodic
information collection from a sample of
respondents.
 Cross Sectional Design : Picture of a
situation at a give point of time.
 Focus Groups for free flowing discussions.
RESEARCH DESIGN FOR
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH STUDIES


After-only with one Control Group
Experimental Group: RX
O1
Control Group :
R
O2
Before- After with one Control Group
Experimental Group:
R
O1 O2
Control Group:
R
O3 O4
Treatment Effect = A - B=(O2–O1)-(O4 – O3 )
THE SOLOMON FOUR GROUPS
DESIGN
 Experimental
Group1:
 Control Group1:
 Experimental Group2:
 Control Group2:
R
R
R
R
Q1
Q3
Q2
Q4
Q5
Q6
Treatment effect = Q5-Q6
Sensitizing Effect = (Q2-Q1) - (Q5- Q1+Q3)
2
STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE
Questions & answers are specified.
 Comments in the respondent’s own words
are held to a minimum.
 Usually has fixed alternative answers to
each question.
 Simple to administer & to analyse.
 Considered inappropriate for study on
attitude & feelings.

UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONAIRE
 Useful
for in-depth interviewer
 More open-ended questions
 Employed in pre-testing and for
constructing structured questionnaire.
DESIGNING A QUESTIONNAIRE
 Covering
letter: for mailing
- should be short and simple
 The question sequence:
To be arranged logically
 Personal questions: Ask towards the end
 Difficult questions: Strain on memory and
intellect: ask towards the end.

QUESTIONNAIRE
 The
question wording: an art
Should be simple and easy to understood
Ambiguous questions should be avoided
 Type

of questions:
multiple choice / Y/N / open -ended
MODEL BUILDING
AND
DECISION MAKING
MODEL
 The
body of information about a system
gathered for the purpose of studying the system
 A set
of variables and their interrelationship
OBJECTIVES OF MODELLING
 Description
 Prediction
 Helping
to do
of the system functioning
of the future
the decision maker decide what
PRESENTATION OF MODELS
 Verbal
or prose models
 Graphical
model
 Mathematical
 Logical
model
flow model
TYPES OF MODEL
 Physical
 Macro
Vs. Mathematical
Vs. Micro
 Deterministic
Vs. Stochastic
MODEL BUILDING
 Identifying
and formulating the decision
problem
 Identifying the objective(s) of the decision
maker(s)
 Identifying the elements of the system
 Determining the relevance of different
aspects of the system
 Model calibration
 Implementation
PROPOSAL FOR A RESEARCH PROJECT

Descriptive title of the study

Names of authors and their background

Nature of the study:
 Problem to be examined / objectives
 Significance and need for the study
 Background information available
 Scope of the study
 To whom it will be useful
Cont..
PROPOSAL: Cont..
 Hypothesis,
if any, to be tested
 Data: sources, collection procedure,
methodology
 Equipment and facilities required
 Schedule: target dates for completing Library
research, data collection, tabulation and
analysis, first draft and final draft
 Cost estimates
 Bibliography
PARTS OF A REPORT
 Cover
and the title page
 Introductory pages:
Forward
 Preface
 Acknowledgement
 Contents
 List of tables and charts
 Abstract

Cont..
REPORT Cont..

Text:
Introduction- Concept- Analysis-conclusionQuotations-footnotes/references- Tables

Reference section
Appendices
 Bibliography
 Glossary (if required)

PRESENTATION OF REPORTS
Presentation skill is the ability to mix in the right
proportion various elements of:
Communication dimension
 Presentation package
 Use of Audio-Visual aids

COMMUNICATION DIMENSION
 Purpose
Audience
 Media
Message
 Time
place
 Presentation package:
Pre-presentation handout
Post-presentation handout
 Use
of audio-visual aids